Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals

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Science Advances  15 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, e1701450
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701450
  • Fig. 1 Map of Levantine EUP sites mentioned in the text.

    Sites included in regional chronology are red. The Manot Cave is indicated by a star. 1, Üçağızlı; 2, Ksâr ‘Akil; 3, Manot; 4, Kebara; 5, Wadi Kharar 16R; 6, Hayonim; 7, Meged; 8, Raqefet; 9, Qafzeh; 10, Nahal Ein-Gev I; 11, Mughr el-Hamamah; 12, Tor Sadaf; 13, Boker A/Boker Tachtit; 14, Nahal Nizzana XIII; 15, Qadesh Barnea; 16, Lagama VII; 17, Abu Noshra. USGS, U.S. Geological Survey; ESRI, Environmental Systems Research Institute; TANA, Telugu Association of North America; AND, Automotive Navigation Data.

  • Fig. 2 Radiocarbon dates for archeological chronology of Manot Cave.

    Samples from areas E and C. J squares are shown as PDFs calibrated with OxCal v4.2 (59) and IntCal13 (60). Dates are listed in stratigraphic sequence by laboratory code, followed by absolute elevation or the elevation range of the sample’s excavation basket. The associated archeological culture is indicated by color: post-Levantine Aurignacian, green; Levantine Aurignacian, orange; Early Ahmarian, pink. NGRIP, North Greenland Ice Core Project.

  • Fig. 3 Regional chronology of radiocarbon dates for stratified EUP sites between 50 and 30 ka cal BP.

    Vertical lines are charcoal dates, and crossed lines are shell dates. Dates are calibrated as 68.2% PDFs using the OxCal v4.2 software (59) and the IntCal-Marine13 calibration curve (60). Dates are color-coded by associated archeological industry and organized into columns by site and study. Within a given study, dates are ordered in stratigraphic sequence (from the lowest elevation or layer on the left to the highest on the right), as precisely as this information is known. The shaded blocks represent the phase ranges reported by particular studies. These ranges are the result of Bayesian models, with the exception of Manot, which shows the full unmodeled range. M&T, Mellars and Tixier (61); MHM, Mughr el-Hamamah. Dates assigned to “other or undetermined” do not necessarily represent the same industry between sites and strata. Site and date information is found in text S7 and data set S1.

  • Table 1 Excavation contexts and date ranges of cultural phases.
    Cultural phaseContext datedDate ranges cal BP
    68.2% (sample number)
    Post-Levantine
    Aurignacian
    In situ occupational surfaces
    Area E, unit 2, layer I, loci
    500 and 501
    34,030–33,050 (6)
    Levantine
    Aurignacian
    In situ occupational surfaces
    Area E, unit 2, layer IV,
    locus 502
    36,860–35,960 (2)
    Secondary talus deposit
    Area C, unit 4; area C, unit
    5 above z = 205.50
    38,260–34,050 (11)
    AhmarianSecondary talus deposit
    Area C, unit 6 below z =
    205.35; area C, unit 7
    45,940–41,560 (8)
    49,440–41,600 (9)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/e1701450/DC1

    text S1. Levantine EUP

    text S2. Site description and archeological sequence

    text S3. Geoarcheological results

    text S4. Charcoal pretreatment: ABA, ABOx, and stepped combustion comparisons

    text S5. Charcoal preservation and radiocarbon results

    text S6. Bayesian modeling

    text S7. Regional chronology

    fig. S1. Top view and profile view of Manot Cave.

    fig. S2. Excavation area E with combustion features.

    fig. S3. Area C showing locations of radiocarbon samples and micromorphology blocks.

    fig. S4. Artifacts from Manot Cave.

    fig. S5. FTIR spectra of sediment exposed to different temperatures in experimental heating study.

    fig. S6. Radiocarbon measurements of Manot charcoal samples prepared by different pretreatments.

    fig. S7. FTIR spectra of charcoal sample before pretreatment, after ABA, and after ABOx.

    fig. S8. Comparison of ABA and ABOx charcoal dates from Levantine EUP sites.

    fig. S9. Characterization of Amygdalus sp. charcoal by scanning electron microscope and FTIR.

    fig. S10. Calibrated radiocarbon dates from area E plotted by absolute elevation.

    fig. S11. Calibrated radiocarbon dates from area C plotted by absolute elevation.

    fig. S12. Bayesian models and outlier analysis.

    table S1. Lithic assemblage in area E.

    table S2. Lithic assemblage in area C.

    table S3. Radiocarbon measurements of Manot charcoal samples prepared by different pretreatments.

    table S4. Comparison of ABA and ABOx charcoal dates from Levantine EUP sites.

    table S5. Radiocarbon samples and dates for Manot Cave.

    table S6. Excavation contexts with archeological classifications and date ranges.

    table S7. Outputs of Bayesian model 1 based on cultural phases.

    table S8. Cultural phase estimates for eight runs of model 1.

    table S9. Outputs of Bayesian model 2 based on lithostratigraphic units.

    data set S1. Published dates used to construct regional chronology.

    References (62116)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • text S1. Levantine EUP
    • text S2. Site description and archeological sequence
    • text S3. Geoarcheological results
    • text S4. Charcoal pretreatment: ABA, ABOx, and stepped combustion comparisons
    • text S5. Charcoal preservation and radiocarbon results
    • text S6. Bayesian modeling
    • text S7. Regional chronology
    • fig. S1. Top view and profile view of Manot Cave.
    • fig. S2. Excavation area E with combustion features.
    • fig. S3. Area C showing locations of radiocarbon samples and micromorphology blocks.
    • fig. S4. Artifacts from Manot Cave.
    • fig. S5. FTIR spectra of sediment exposed to different temperatures in experimental heating study.
    • fig. S6. Radiocarbon measurements of Manot charcoal samples prepared by different pretreatments.
    • fig. S7. FTIR spectra of charcoal sample before pretreatment, after ABA, and after ABOx.
    • fig. S8. Comparison of ABA and ABOx charcoal dates from Levantine EUP sites.
    • fig. S9. Characterization of Amygdalus sp. charcoal by scanning electron microscope and FTIR.
    • fig. S10. Calibrated radiocarbon dates from area E plotted by absolute elevation.
    • fig. S11. Calibrated radiocarbon dates from area C plotted by absolute elevation.
    • fig. S12. Bayesian models and outlier analysis.
    • table S1. Lithic assemblage in area E.
    • table S2. Lithic assemblage in area C.
    • table S3. Radiocarbon measurements of Manot charcoal samples prepared by different pretreatments.
    • table S4. Comparison of ABA and ABOx charcoal dates from Levantine EUP sites.
    • table S5. Radiocarbon samples and dates for Manot Cave.
    • table S6. Excavation contexts with archeological classifications and date ranges.
    • table S7. Outputs of Bayesian model 1 based on cultural phases.
    • table S8. Cultural phase estimates for eight runs of model 1.
    • table S9. Outputs of Bayesian model 2 based on lithostratigraphic units.
    • data set S1. Published dates used to construct regional chronology.
    • References (62–116)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • data set S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Published dates used to construct regional chronology.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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