Research ArticleENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

The Indian monsoon variability and civilization changes in the Indian subcontinent

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  13 Dec 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 12, e1701296
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701296
  • Fig. 1 Site locations and the spatial pattern of modern ISM precipitation.

    (A) The spatial extent of the Indus Valley Civilization [IVC; ~5300–3300 years before present (yr BP)] is marked by dotted green lines along with the Indus River (brown line). Shading indicates the spatial pattern of JJAS (June to September) rainfall rate (mm/day) from the gridded precipitation data set from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Monitoring Product v5 (56). The Sahiya Cave is shown by a black star. (B) Same as (A), except spatial extent of the Early (~3400–3050 yr BP) and Later (~3050–2450 yr BP) Vedic periods are shown. Hexagons depict other cave sites mentioned in the text.

  • Fig. 2 Comparison of the Sahiya record with other climate records.

    (A) The Cariaco Basin titanium record (31), (B) the composite Sahiya δ18O record (green this study), the NH temperature anomalies over the last 2000 years [orange (57)], the Holocene [red (58)], (C) the central India δ18O record (3), and (D) the Hoti and (E) Qunf ISM records from Oman (25, 26). (F) Wanxiang (59) and (G) Dongge (32) East Asian monsoon records from China. Black curves are 21 July insolations at 65°N (60). The arrows illustrate different trends between the Sahiya and Hoti records over the last ~1500 years. The 3900–4200 year event is shown with the purple bar. Gray bars show some centennial-decadal events in the ISM records.

  • Fig. 3 The Sahiya δ18O record in comparison with NH temperature and the civilization and cultural history in the northwestern Indian subcontinent.

    Orange bars indicate the temporal range of warm climate periods: the MCA, DACP, RWP, and MWP and the later part of the mid-HCO (33). Blue bars indicate the cold climate events: the LIA, a cold event within the RWP (gray arrow) (35, 36), and the pRCP (blue arrows) (34). The vertical shaded bars depict different civilization and culture periods, as labeled at the bottom. Horizontal blue lines mark the mean δ18O values for each vertical bar.

  • Fig. 4 The Sahiya δ18O record over the last two millennia.

    Green and orange curves are the Sahiya δ18O record (28) and the NH temperature anomaly reconstruction (57), respectively. The horizontal bars show the time range of warm (MCA and RWP) and cold (LIA and DACP) periods. The black arrow depicts a decreasing trend in both the NH temperature and the ISM during the Guge Kingdom epoch (the vertical bar). The collapse of the Guge Kingdom coincides with the weakest ISM over the last 5700 years.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/12/e1701296/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    fig. S1. Age models of stalagmites.

    fig. S2. New Sahiya δ18O records between 5700 and 2000 yr BP.

    fig. S3. Comparision of the Sahiya δ18O record with the Mawmluh δ18O record.

    fig. S4. Comparison of the Sahiya δ18O record with instrumental precipitation records in the cave area.

    fig. S5. Comparison of the Sahiya δ18O record with the proxy NH temperature reconstruction.

    table S1. The composite Sahiya Cave oxygen isotope record.

    table S2. 230Th dating results.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • fig. S1. Age models of stalagmites.
    • fig. S2. New Sahiya δ18O records between 5700 and 2000 yr BP.
    • fig. S3. Comparision of the Sahiya δ18O record with the Mawmluh δ18O record.
    • fig. S4. Comparison of the Sahiya δ18O record with instrumental precipitation records in the cave area.
    • fig. S5. Comparison of the Sahiya δ18O record with the proxy NH temperature reconstruction.

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). The composite Sahiya Cave oxygen isotope record.
    • table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). 230Th dating results.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article