Research ArticleCLIMATE CHANGE

Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity

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Science Advances  22 Feb 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 2, e1601198
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601198
  • Fig. 1 Global distribution of cumulative environmental impacts.

    Index of cumulative impact of equally weighted changes in SST, CHL (a proxy to primary productivity), and ocean currents. Colors represent a dimensionless index of global impact (Cumulative Impact Index) ranging from 0 (no change) to 1 (maximum change), providing a measure of spatial heterogeneity in the magnitude of environmental changes and highlighting those marine areas that have undergone the largest changes in their environmental conditions.

  • Fig. 2 Environmental stressors affecting hot spots of marine biodiversity.

    Marine hot spots (top) were identified on the basis of the spatially explicit information on the equally weighted distribution of fish (1729), marine mammal (124), and seabird (330) species. Colors represent a dimensionless index of biodiversity ranging from 0 (absence of species) to 1 (maximum species richness). Hot spots enclose 0.5° pixels with values of biodiversity over the upper 95th percentile. Density plots represent the distribution of environmental changes occurring within marine biodiversity hot spots and the derived Cumulative Impact Index, that is, the number of 1° pixels within each hot spot and with a given value for the estimated magnitudes of each environmental change. In this way, we aimed to highlight the idea that climate impacts may vary locally within defined hot spots as density plots extend over a range of values below and above zero, which denotes no change. Further details on the spatial distribution of these local impacts are provided in fig. S1.

  • Fig. 3 Fishing impact on the marine environment.

    Average fishing captures (in metric tons) for the 2000–2013 period are represented per country and MFA (top). Trends in fishing captures (slope of the linear trend for the 1950–2013 period) are also represented per country and MFA (middle). Those countries contributing the most to fishing captures at those MFA that overlap to a large extent with marine biodiversity hot spots are highlighted in dark gray (bottom). All of them have sovereign EEZs overlapping marine hot spots, with the exception of Spain.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/2/e1601198/DC1

    fig. S1. Significance and magnitudes of observed environmental changes.

    fig. S2. Major contributors to fishing pressure.

    fig. S3. Identifying hot spots of marine biodiversity.

    table S1. Long-term, remote-sensing records of oceanographic features.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Significance and magnitudes of observed environmental changes.
    • fig. S2. Major contributors to fishing pressure.
    • fig. S3. Identifying hot spots of marine biodiversity.
    • table S1. Long-term, remote-sensing records of oceanographic features.

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