Research ArticleENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Air pollution–aerosol interactions produce more bioavailable iron for ocean ecosystems

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Science Advances  01 Mar 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 3, e1601749
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601749
  • Fig. 1 TEM images and EDS spectra of two typical Fe-bearing particles collected over the Yellow Sea.

    (A) Two spherical Fe-rich particles internally mixed with sulfate. (B) A spherical fly ash particle internally mixed with sulfate.

  • Fig. 2 Number fraction of different types of Fe-bearing aerosols at different size ranges.
  • Fig. 3 Dark-field TEM images and elemental maps of C, S, and Fe and NanoSIMS ion intensity maps of CN, S, FeO, and FeS of an individual Fe-bearing particle.

    (A and B) Elemental maps showing two individual sulfate particles with Fe-rich particles (as hotspots). (C) Ion intensity maps showing the presence of OM, sulfate, Fe oxide, and Fe sulfate.

  • Fig. 4 Relationship between S/(FeS + FeO) and FeS/(FeO + FeS) in individual aerosol particles.

    These include 84 Fe-bearing particles from the East China Sea, three laboratory-generated aerosol samples [hematite in H2SO4 (pH 2) (triangle), hematite in H2SO4 (pH 1.8) with oxalate (pentagon), and soluble fraction of haze PM2.5 (hexagon)]. The red dots represent the average values of S/(FeS + FeO) versus FeS/(FeO + FeS) from all Fe-bearing particles over different size ranges (<100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3600 nm), whereas the red line shows the regression of average FeS/(FeO + FeS) and logometric values of average S/(FeO + FeS). Error bars represent the degree of data dispersion within different size ranges.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/3/e1601749/DC1

    fig. S1. Cruise route and AOD map.

    fig. S2. Air mass back trajectories at 1500 m of each sampling station over the Yellow Sea.

    fig. S3. The correlation of ESD and EAD based on AFM analysis.

    fig. S4. TEM micrographs of an Fe-rich particle and a sulfate particle collected over the East China Sea.

    fig. S5. Morphology and mixing state of Fe-rich and fly ash particles.

    fig. S6. TEM image of Fe-rich and coal fly ash particles collected at sources.

    fig. S7. Size distributions of Fe-rich and fly ash inclusions only and Fe-bearing particles.

    fig. S8. NanoSIMS ion intensity of S, FeO, and FeS in standard samples.

    fig. S9. Dark-field image and elemental mapping of an individual hematite-bearing particle (experiment 1).

    fig. S10. NanoSIMS ion intensity of C, CN, S, FeO, and FeS in individual particles collected over the Yellow Sea.

    fig. S11. Dark-field image and elemental mapping of an internally mixed particle generated from ammonium sulfate solution (pH 5.6) mixed with coal fly ash.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Cruise route and AOD map.
    • fig. S2. Air mass back trajectories at 1500 m of each sampling station over the Yellow Sea.
    • fig. S3. The correlation of ESD and EAD based on AFM analysis.
    • fig. S4. TEM micrographs of an Fe-rich particle and a sulfate particle collected over the East China Sea.
    • fig. S5. Morphology and mixing state of Fe-rich and fly ash particles.
    • fig. S6. TEM image of Fe-rich and coal fly ash particles collected at sources.
    • fig. S7. Size distributions of Fe-rich and fly ash inclusions only and Fe-bearing particles.
    • fig. S8. NanoSIMS ion intensity of S, FeO, and FeS in standard samples.
    • fig. S9. Dark-field image and elemental mapping of an individual hematite-bearing particle (Exp. 1).
    • fig. S10. NanoSIMS ion intensity of C, CN, S, FeO, and FeS in individual particles collected over the Yellow Sea.
    • fig. S11. Dark-field image and elemental mapping of an internally mixed particle generated from ammonium sulfate solution (pH 5.6) mixed with coal fly ash.

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