Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Origami by frontal photopolymerization

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Science Advances  28 Apr 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 4, e1602326
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602326
  • Fig. 1 Shrinkage-induced bending during FPP.

    (A) Schematic process of volume shrinkage–induced bending: Sequential shrinkage occurs during the FPP of a polymer sheet, and the internal stress developed during the process drives the sheet to bend. LED, light-emitting diode. (B) Schematic process of shrinkage-induced bending test (with PDMS substrate). (C) Schematic process of shrinkage-induced bending test (without PDMS substrate).

  • Fig. 2 Experimental results of shrinkage-induced bending.

    (A) Rectangular samples cured in a petri dish with different irradiation times (light intensity, 5 mW cm−2). (B) Bending curvature of photopolymerized strips as a function of irradiation time and incident light intensity. (C) Stress distribution across sample thickness (light intensity, 5 mW cm−2).

  • Fig. 3 Fabrication of origami structures by one-side illumination.

    (A) Polymer sheet right after photopolymerization (panel intensity, 15 mW cm−2; leg intensity, 3 mW cm−2; irradiation time, 10 s). (B) Free bending of spatial, differently cured sheet. (C) Shape fixing of bending structures by post-curing (under a uniform light of 10 mW cm−2 for 20 to 30 s). (D) Sample after post-curing is stiff and able to hold several glass coverslips. (E) Flower structures with different opening degrees (panel intensity, 10 mW cm−2; petal intensities, 2.5, 4, 6, and 7 mW cm−2 for different opening degrees; irradiation time, 6 s). (F) Polymer sheet with a continuous variation of curvature (intensity varied from 2.5 to 10 mW cm−2; irradiation time, 4 s). Insets in (A), (E), and (F) indicate the light patterns.

  • Fig. 4 Polyhedrons created by one-side illumination.

    (A) Octahedron (panel intensity, 15 mW cm−2; hinge intensity, 3 mW cm−2; irradiation time, 6 s). (B) Grayscale pattern of octahedron structure. (C) Truncated cube (panel intensity, 15 mW cm−2; hinge intensity, 3.3 mW cm−2; irradiation time, 6 s). (D) Regular icosahedron (panel intensity, 15 mW cm−2; hinge intensity, 4 mW cm−2; irradiation time, 6 s). Insets in (C) and (D) indicate the corresponding light patterns, and the red x indicates that the panel is an extra one used for stabilizing the structure.

  • Fig. 5 Fabrication of origami structures by two-side illuminations.

    (A) Schematic process of two-side illumination method. (B) Table (panel intensity, 18 mW cm−2; petal intensity, 2.5 mW cm−2; irradiation time of each side, 7 s). (C) Miura structure (panel intensity, 20 mW cm−2; hinge intensity, 2 mW cm−2; irradiation time of each side, 7 s). (D) Tent (panel intensity, 18 mW cm−2; hinge intensity, 2 mW cm−2; irradiation time of each side, 7 s). (E) Crane (panel intensity, 20 mW cm−2; body hinge intensity, 1 mW cm−2; wing hinge intensity, 2 mW cm−2; irradiation time of each side, 15 s). Created by two-side illumination method.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/4/e1602326/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    fig. S1. Conversion profile of frontal photopolymerized samples.

    fig. S2. Properties of the resin during photopolymerization.

    fig. S3. Bending curvature as a function of irradiation dose.

    fig. S4. Relation between light intensity and gray scale.

    movie S1. Bending of an octahedron guided by tweezers.

    movie S2. Bending of an origami crane guided by tweezers.

    References (3739)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • fig. S1. Conversion profile of frontal photopolymerized samples.
    • fig. S2. Properties of the resin during photopolymerization.
    • fig. S3. Bending curvature as a function of irradiation dose.
    • fig. S4. Relation between light intensity and gray scale.
    • Legends for movies S1 and S2
    • References (37–39)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.avi format). Bending of an octahedron guided by tweezers.
    • movie S2 (.avi format). Bending of an origami crane guided by tweezers.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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