Research ArticleCONSERVATION ECOLOGY

Cost-effective conservation of amphibian ecology and evolution

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Science Advances  21 Jun 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 6, e1602929
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602929
  • Fig. 1 Spatial distribution of FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
  • Fig. 2 Spatial distribution of the PAs and the three prioritization models proposed to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
  • Table 1 Land cost-effectiveness and percent land covered by PAs and non-PAs, according to the spatial distribution of the FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    FDPDTDTS
    PAs
      Land cost-effectiveness (million dollars)159.49152.71127.8636.36
      Land covered (%)11.6011.109.3829.37
    Non-PAs
      Land cost-effectiveness (million dollars)1215.451222.321245.9787.07
      Land covered (%)88.4088.9090.6270.63
  • Table 2 Area, excluded PAs, forest cover, and land cost-effectiveness by three priority scenarios to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Model 1, very high priority; model 2, high priority; model 3, medium priority.

    Priority scenariosArea
    (km2)
    Excluded PAs (km2)Forest cover (%)Land cost-effectiveness/year (million dollars)
    Model 11,995.28293.6224.2526.48
    Model 24,555.12934.0215.3060.46
    Model 313,213.501406.2811.86175.38

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/6/e1602929/DC1

    fig. S1. Plots of the relationships between FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    fig. S2. Mismatch maps among FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    fig. S3. Spatial distribution of the PAs, the forest remnants outside of the PAs, and the very high priority sites covered by the proposed model 1 to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    fig. S4. Spatial distribution of the PAs, the forest remnants outside of the PAs, and the high-priority sites covered by the proposed model 2 to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    fig. S5. Spatial distribution of the PAs, the forest remnants outside of the PAs, and the medium-priority sites covered by the proposed model 3 to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    fig. S6. Forest remnants and complementary fieldwork areas sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    table S1. Results from the PERMANOVA on the land cost-effectiveness by the FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    table S2. Specific functions, ecosystem-supporting services, and references related to the amphibian functional traits assessed in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    data file S1. Functional traits and references for 453 amphibian species sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (.xlsx as a separate file).

    data file S2. GenBank accession numbers for 207 amphibian species sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (.xlsx as a separate file).

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Plots of the relationships between FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • fig. S2. Mismatch maps among FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • fig. S3. Spatial distribution of the PAs, the forest remnants outside of the PAs, and the very high priority sites covered by the proposed model 1 to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • fig. S4. Spatial distribution of the PAs, the forest remnants outside of the PAs, and the high-priority sites covered by the proposed model 2 to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • fig. S5. Spatial distribution of the PAs, the forest remnants outside of the PAs, and the medium-priority sites covered by the proposed model 3 to amphibian conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • fig. S6. Forest remnants and complementary fieldwork areas sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • table S1. Results from the PERMANOVA on the land cost-effectiveness by the FD (Petchey and Gaston’s FD), PD (Faith’s PD), TD, and TS of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
    • table S2. Specific functions, ecosystem-supporting services, and references related to the amphibian functional traits assessed in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Functional traits and references for 453 amphibian species sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (.xlsx as a separate file).
    • data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). GenBank accession numbers for 207 amphibian species sampled in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (.xlsx as a separate file).

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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