Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers

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Science Advances  30 Jun 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 6, e1700345
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700345
  • Fig. 1 Operation mode of electrochemical devices.

    (A) Electron transfer between the CE and the reactants in the electrolyte. (B) Both the WE and the CE include electrochemically active solids. (C) No electron transfer, but charges accumulate at the CE as an EDL, and its capacitance is large enough to fully compensate the charge introduced in the polymer film at the WE. (D) The CE consists of a metallic electrode functionalized with a polymer ferroelectric thin-film layer. (E) Semiconductor-conductor transition in organic redox polymers showing both nonlinearity and bistability in the I-V characteristics, as typically observed in cyclic voltammetry. CB, conduction band; VB, valence band.

  • Fig. 2 Electrical characteristics of PEDOT:PSS.

    (A) Chemical structure of PEDOT:PSS. (B) Schematic of a symmetric PEDOT:PSS/electrolyte/PEDOT:PSS. (C) Typical I-V characteristics of a device at 0.4 V s−1. (D) Reduction of pristine PEDOT:PSS electrodes at −0.8 V.

  • Fig. 3 Electrical characteristics of P(VDF-TrFE).

    (A) Typical I-V characteristics of a Au/P(VDF-TrFE)/Au device. The inset shows the chemical structure of P(VDF-TrFE) and the device structure. (B) Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of a 140-nm-thick layer using a Sawyer-Tower circuit at a 100-Hz applied voltage frequency.

  • Fig. 4 Electrical characteristics of a ferroelectric PEDOT:PSS pixel.

    (A) Schematic of the ferroelectric PEDOT:PSS pixel and its cross section. (B) Normalized I-V characteristics of a typical ferro-electrochemical pixel with (black curve) and without (red curve) metal interlayer. (C) Peak voltage as a function of P(VDF-TrFE) film thickness for ferro-electrochemical pixel with (black dots) and without (red dots) metal interlayer. Open dots refer to a metal/P(VDF-TrFE)/metal capacitor. (D) Optical images of a printed passive matrix–addressed electrochromic display containing 3 × 3 ferro-electrochemical pixels with metal interlayer. Indices (i to vi) are displayed in fig. S4 for clarity.

  • Fig. 5 Steady-state characteristics of electrochemical transistors.

    Transfer characteristics of an ECT with 100-μm-long PEDOT:PSS channel (Vd = −0.5 V) (A) and the associated transconductance (B). Transfer characteristics of a ferroelectric ECT with 100-μm-long PEDOT:PSS channel and 280-nm-thick P(VDF-TrFE) dielectric (Vd = −0.5 V) (C) and the associated transconductance (D).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/6/e1700345/DC1

    fig. S1. Morphology characterization of P(VDF-TrFE) films.

    fig. S2. Morphology characterization and stability test of P(VDF-TrFE) without metal interlayer.

    fig. S3. Morphology characterization and stability test of P(VDF-TrFE) with metal interlayer.

    fig. S4. I-V characteristic of the ferro-electrochemical pixel reported in Fig. 4D.

    fig. S5. Optical images of printed electrochromic displays and grayscale pixel intensity distribution analysis.

    fig. S6. Transfer characteristics of a ferroelectric OECT with QPVDF 2/3 of QPEDOT.

    fig. S7. Transient response of ferroelectric PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs.

    fig. S8. Data retention time of ferroelectric PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs.

    movie S1. Printed passive matrix–addressed electrochromic displays.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Morphology characterization of P(VDF-TrFE) films.
    • fig. S2. Morphology characterization and stability test of P(VDF-TrFE) without metal interlayer.
    • fig. S3. Morphology characterization and stability test of P(VDF-TrFE) with metal interlayer.
    • fig. S4. I-V characteristic of the ferro-electrochemical pixel reported in Fig. 4D.
    • fig. S5. Optical images of printed electrochromic displays and grayscale pixel intensity distribution analysis.
    • fig. S6. Transfer characteristics of a ferroelectric OECT with QPVDF 2/3 of QPEDOT.
    • fig. S7. Transient response of ferroelectric PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs.
    • fig. S8. Data retention time of ferroelectric PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.avi format). Printed passive matrix–addressed electrochromic displays.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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