Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability with a new type of hollow 3D perovskite {en}FASnI3

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Science Advances  30 Aug 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 8, e1701293
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701293
  • Fig. 1 Characterization of bulk materials and theory calculations.

    (A) Unit cell and crystal structure of {en}FASnI3 perovskite absorber. (B) pXRD patterns, (C) 1H NMR, (D) TGA data, (E) optical absorption, and (F) photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite crystals with various molar ratios of FA and en. a.u., arbitrary unit. (G) A 2 × 2 × 2 supercell of (FA)2Sn2I6 depicting a model of the hollow perovskite with two SnI2 vacancies [(FA)16Sn14I44]. The calculated band structures of the supercell for the full [(FA)16Sn16I48] and hollow [(FA)16Sn14I44] perovskites are shown in (H) and (I), respectively. (I) Inset: Plot of the increase in the bandgap and decrease of the bandwidth as a function of SnI2 vacancies in FASnI3.

  • Fig. 2 Characterization of films.

    Top-view SEM images of the perovskite films (A) without and (B) with 10% en loading deposited on the mesoporous TiO2 at low magnification. Insets: Top-view SEM images of the same films at high magnifications. (C) XRD patterns, (D) ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, (E) PL, and (F) time-resolved PL (TRPL) spectra of the perovskite films with various amounts of en loading deposited on mesoporous TiO2.

  • Fig. 3 Performance and stability of devices.

    (A) Cross-sectional SEM image of a completed device. (B) J-V curves of the solar cells using the perovskite absorbers with various amounts of en addition. (C) Aging test on the unencapsulated solar cells with and without 10% en under constant AM1.5G (air mass 1.5 global) illumination in ambient air.

  • Fig. 4 Performance of the champion device and reproducibility and stability of devices.

    (A) J-V curves of the best-performing solar cell using an {en}FASnI3 perovskite absorber with 10% en loading measured under reverse and forward voltage scans. (B) EQE and integrated Jsc measured from a solar cell with 10% en. (C) Histograms of PCEs for 60 solar cells with 10% en. (D) Efficiency of an encapsulated device with 10% en as a function of the storage time.

  • Table 1 Comparison of experimental and theoretical crystal densities of all reported materials, along with SD.
    Material/density
    (g cm−3)
    ExperimentSingle crystal
    (full occupancy)
    Single crystal
    (Sn-refined)
    FASnI33.594(1)3.604(3)3.596(3)
    1:0.13.479(1)3.587(3)3.565(3)
    1:0.253.459(1)3.547(3)3.497(3)
    1:0.53.403(1)3.536(3)3.467(3)
    1:13.285(1)3.507(3)3.386(3)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/8/e1701293/DC1

    fig. S1. Top-view SEM images of the {en}FASnI3 crystals.

    fig. S2. TGA spectra of FAI, enI2, and SnI2 powder.

    fig. S3. Top-view SEM images of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films with various amounts of en loading.

    fig. S4. 1H NMR spectra of the films with and without en loading.

    fig. S5. Bandgaps of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films.

    fig. S6. UV-vis optical absorption spectra, J-V, and EQE curves of the perovskite absorbers with various amounts of en loading.

    fig. S7. Air stability of UV-vis absorption spectra and XRD patterns of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films.

    fig. S8. Thermal stability test of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films.

    fig. S9. Steady-state efficiency of an {en}FASnI3 solar cell with 10% en loading.

    fig. S10. J-V curves of {en}FASnI3 solar cells with larger active areas.

    table S1. Unit cells, bonding parameters, and refinement parameters of {en}FASnI3 crystals.

    table S2. Comparison of the initial and final FA/en ratio on NMR and density measurements.

    table S3. Comparison of experimental and theoretical crystal densities of all reported materials.

    table S4. Summary of the photovoltaic parameters of the {en}FASnI3 solar cells with various amounts of en loading.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Top-view SEM images of the {en}FASnI3 crystals.
    • fig. S2. TGA spectra of FAI, enI2, and SnI2 powder.
    • fig. S3. Top-view SEM images of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films with various amounts of en loading.
    • fig. S4. 1H NMR spectra of the films with and without en loading.
    • fig. S5. Bandgaps of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films.
    • fig. S6. UV-vis optical absorption spectra, J-V, and EQE curves of the perovskite absorbers with various amounts of en loading.
    • fig. S7. Air stability of UV-vis absorption spectra and XRD patterns of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films.
    • fig. S8. Thermal stability test of the {en}FASnI3 perovskite films.
    • fig. S9. Steady-state efficiency of an {en}FASnI3 solar cell with 10% en loading.
    • fig. S10. J-V curves of {en}FASnI3 solar cells with larger active areas.
    • table S1. Unit cells, bonding parameters, and refinement parameters of {en}FASnI3 crystals.
    • table S2. Comparison of the initial and final FA/en ratio on NMR and density measurements.
    • table S3. Comparison of experimental and theoretical crystal densities of all reported materials.
    • table S4. Summary of the photovoltaic parameters of the {en}FASnI3 solar cells with various amounts of en loading.

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