Research ArticleMARINE ECOSYSTEMS

Latitudinal trends in shell production cost from the tropics to the poles

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Science Advances  20 Sep 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 9, e1701362
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701362
  • Fig. 1 Shell deposition.

    Amount of CaCO3 deposited each year throughout the lifetime of species for (A) gastropods and (B) bivalves for all years of life up to the maximum age found in sample populations. Line colors denote species from tropical (red), warm-temperate (orange), cool-temperate (green), and polar (Arctic, light blue; Antarctic, dark blue) locations.

  • Fig. 2 Energy budget shell cost throughout the lifetime of species.

    Percentage of the total annual energy budget devoted to shell production for (A) gastropods and (B) bivalves for all years of life up to the maximum age found in sample populations. Line colors denote species from tropical (red), warm-temperate (orange), cool-temperate (green), and polar (Arctic, light blue; Antarctic, dark blue) locations and were calculated using the mean CaCO3 deposition cost of 1.5 J mg−1 CaCO3. Gray lines indicate the range of values of energy budget cost calculated using CaCO3 deposition costs of 1 to 2 J mg−1.

  • Fig. 3 Shell cost by latitudinal zone.

    Mean energy budget shell cost across latitudinal zones for (A) gastropods and (B) bivalves during the first 6 years of life. Data show the standard CaCO3 deposition cost of 1.5 J mg−1 CaCO3 and the effect of a hypothetical doubling of CaCO3 cost to 3 J mg−1 on the energy budget. Error bars are ±1 SE.

  • Fig. 4 Proportional shell size and cost along global temperature gradients.

    Latitudinal trends plotted by temperature for inorganic content (shell size) and shell cost in (A) gastropods and (B) bivalves. For gastropods (A), numbers represent species: (1) Phos senticosus (tropical), (2) Pollia fumosa (tropical), (3) Cominella lineolata (warm-temperate), (4) Buccinum undatum (cool-temperate), (5) B. glaciale (polar, Arctic), (6) B. cf. groenlandicum (polar, Artic), and (7) Neobuccinum eatoni (polar, Antarctic). For bivalves (B), numbers represent species: (1) Laternula boschasina (tropical), (2) L. truncata (tropical), (3) L. recta (temperate), and (4) L. elliptica (polar). Data are means ± 1 SE.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/9/e1701362/DC1

    table S1. Species, locations of collection sites, and VBGF parameters.

    table S2. Scaling factors used to convert metabolism into annual metabolism for species from seasonal locations.

    table S3. Specific dynamic action.

    fig. S1. Growth coefficients (k) from VBGFs for gastropods and bivalves along latitudinal temperature gradients.

    fig. S2. Shell production cost as a percentage of the total annual energy budget displayed for each latitudinal zone.

    References (5966)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • table S1. Species, locations of collection sites, and VBGF parameters.
    • table S2. Scaling factors used to convert metabolism into annual metabolism for species from seasonal locations.
    • table S3. Specific dynamic action.
    • fig. S1. Growth coefficients (k) from VBGFs for gastropods and bivalves along latitudinal temperature gradients.
    • fig. S2. Shell production cost as a percentage of the total annual energy budget displayed for each latitudinal zone.
    • References (59–66)

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