Research ArticleCLIMATOLOGY

Climate change stimulated agricultural innovation and exchange across Asia

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Science Advances  31 Oct 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 10, eaar4491
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar4491
  • Fig. 1 Sites discussed in the text and routes of the proposed spread of millets, wheat, and barley.

    The routes are indicated by arrows in the wheat panel. (A) Pathway of the Inner Asian Mountain Corridor (27). (B) Southern Himalayan route (29). (C) Northern Asia route (2). The ages of sites represented by triangles are estimated from summed radiocarbon dates including those on grains; the ages of sites represented by circles are as reported in the literature. See data file S1 and table S2 for chronometric data and estimated site occupation spans.

  • Fig. 2 The spread of wheat, barley, buckwheat, foxtail millet, broomcorn, and rice across Asia at the end of the Holocene Climatic Optimum (4030 cal. BP), 3550 cal. BP, 1690 cal. BP, and 1010 cal. BP.

    Sites that have evidence of a crop at a particular year are shown as black dots. See movies S1 to S6 for the full animations.

  • Fig. 3 Calibrated radiocarbon ranges for each site in our database (x axis) and the probability of each of these sites being in the niche during that same phase of occupation (y axis).

    An interactive version of this figure that labels each of the cross-plots and enables zooming is available as data file S2.

  • Fig. 4 Storage estimates for sites in three countries in Asia.
  • Fig. 5 The historic distribution of millet, wheat, barley, and rice cultivation, as recorded in the China Vegetation Atlas (57).
  • Fig. 6 Kernel density estimates of the niche probability data for the historic distribution of millet, wheat, barley, and rice cultivation.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/10/eaar4491/DC1

    Data file S1. The chronometric data used in this analysis, radiocarbon laboratories, and associated references.

    Data file S2. Calibrated radiocarbon ranges for each site in our database (x axis) and the probability of each of these sites being in the niche during that same phase of occupation (y axis).

    Data file S3. An archived research compendium containing all R code and data to reproduce the analysis, as well as the specification of the computing environment.

    Table S1. Common Eurasian crops and their thermal requirements.

    Table S2. Estimated site occupation spans and niche probabilities over those occupations for all sites in this study.

    Table S3. Storage estimates for sites in three countries in Asia.

    Movie S1. The wheat niche.

    Movie S2. The barley niche.

    Movie S3. The broomcorn millet niche.

    Movie S4. The foxtail millet niche.

    Movie S5. The buckwheat niche.

    Movie S6. The rice niches.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Legends for data files S1 to S3
    • Legends for tables S1 to S3
    • Legends for movies S1 to S6

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). The chronometric data used in this analysis, radiocarbon laboratories, and associated references.
    • Data file S2 (.html format). Calibrated radiocarbon ranges for each site in our database ( x axis) and the probability of each of these sites being in the niche during that same phase of occupation ( y axis).
    • Data file S3 (.gz format). An archived research compendium containing all R code and data to reproduce the analysis, as well as the specification of the computing environment.
    • Table S1 (.csv format). Common Eurasian crops and their thermal requirements.
    • Table S2 (.csv format). Estimated site occupation spans and niche probabilities over those occupations for all sites in this study.
    • Table S3 (.csv format). Storage estimates for sites in three countries in Asia.
    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). The wheat niche.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). The barley niche.
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). The broomcorn millet niche.
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). The foxtail millet niche.
    • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). The buckwheat niche.
    • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). The rice niches.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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