Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads

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Science Advances  03 Oct 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat4457
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4457
  • Fig. 1 Radiocarbon ages and geographical locations of the ancient samples used in this study.

    Figure panels presented counterclockwise: (A) Bar plot visualizing approximate timeline of presented and previously published individuals. (B) Map showing the locations of ancient individuals sequenced in this study and the locations of previously published ancient individuals used in comparative analyses. (C) Principal component analysis (PCA) plot visualizing 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals presented in this study and in published ancient individuals (table S5) in relation to modern reference panel from the Human Origins data set (41).

  • Fig. 2 Genetic diversity and ancestral components of Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population.

    Diversity and ancestral components of Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population (here called “Srubnaya”): (A) Mean f3 statistics for Srubnaya and other Bronze Age populations. Srubnaya group was color-coded the same as with PCA. (B) Pairwise mismatch estimates for Bronze Age populations. (C) ADMIXTURE results for K = 15. K = 15 was chosen to display since it shows SA component (lilac) and Northeast Asian (NEA, “dark green”) components in addition to the other components. BA, Bronze Age; EBA, Early Bronze Age; MBA, Middle Bronze Age; CA, Chalcolithic; N, Neolithic; EN, Early Neolithic; LN, Late Neolithic; HG, hunter-gatherers; SHG, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers (fig. S10).

  • Fig. 3 Genetic relationship between Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population and Iron Age nomads.

    Visual summary of f4 statistics of a form f4(YRI, TestPop, Pop X, Srubnaya), where TestPop is (A) Cimmerian; (B) Scythian and (C) Sarmatian. (D) Admixture selection: Our ancient individuals and Iron Age individuals from closely related populations (K = 15). K = 15 was chosen to display since it shows SA (lilac) and NEA (dark green) components in addition to the other components. Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population is named as Srubnaya in the panels. IA, Iron Age (fig. S10).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/10/eaat4457/DC1

    Archaeological context information

    Fig. S1. Radiocarbon dating and diet.

    Fig. S2. Nucleotide misincorporation patterns at last 30-bp sequences.

    Fig. S3. PCA with modern populations.

    Fig. S4. Outgroup f3 statistics.

    Fig. S5. PCA with Bronze Age individuals.

    Fig. S6. PCA with Paleolithic and Mesolithic individuals.

    Fig. S7. PCA with Neolithic individuals.

    Fig. S8. PCA with Chalcolithic individuals.

    Fig. S9. PCA with Iron Age individuals.

    Fig. S10. ADMIXTURE analysis.

    Table S1. Archaeological information for individuals used in this study.

    Table S2. Stable isotope and radiocarbon dating results information for individuals used in this study.

    Table S3. Sequencing statistics and mitochondrial variants for individuals sequenced in this study.

    Table S4. Mitochondrial contamination estimates for individuals sequenced in this study.

    Table S5. Ancient sample data set details including the number of SNPs overlapping with modern reference.

    Table S6. Outgroup f3 statistics for individuals sequenced in this study.

    Table S7. Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya and Andronovo, Afanasievo, and Sintashta.

    Table S8. Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya-Alakulskaya tested as a single population or individuals and Karasuk and other Bronze Age populations.

    Table S9. Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya-Alakulskaya tested as a single population or individuals and Yamnaya and other Bronze Age populations.

    Table S10. Diversity estimates in Bronze Age populations.

    Table S11. Summary f4 statistics between Cimmerians, Scythians, and other ancient populations.

    Table S12. Summary f4 statistics between Cimmerians, Sarmatians, and other ancient populations.

    Table S13. F3 support for different components changing with time in Cimmerians as observed in ADMIXTURE.

    Table S14. Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya/Srubnaya-Alakulskaya and Andronovo, Afanasievo, and Sintashta.

    Table S15. Summary f4 statistics between Scythians tested as population, Yamnaya, and other Bronze Age populations.

    Table S16. Summary f4 statistics between Cimmerians tested as a population, Srubnaya/Srubnaya-Alakulskaya, and other Bronze Age populations.

    Table S17. Summary f4 statistics of multiway comparisons of individuals form the study together with Srubnaya.

    Table S18. Summary f4 statistics between Sarmatians and other Bronze Age populations.

    References (5660)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Archaeological context information
    • Fig. S1. Radiocarbon dating and diet.
    • Fig. S2. Nucleotide misincorporation patterns at last 30-bp sequences.
    • Fig. S3. PCA with modern populations.
    • Fig. S4. Outgroup f3 statistics.
    • Fig. S5. PCA with Bronze Age individuals.
    • Fig. S6. PCA with Paleolithic and Mesolithic individuals.
    • Fig. S7. PCA with Neolithic individuals.
    • Fig. S8. PCA with Chalcolithic individuals.
    • Fig. S9. PCA with Iron Age individuals.
    • Fig. S10. ADMIXTURE analysis.
    • References (5660)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Archaeological information for individuals used in this study.
    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Stable isotope and radiocarbon dating results information for individuals used in this study.
    • Table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Sequencing statistics and mitochondrial variants for individuals sequenced in this study.
    • Table S4 (Microsoft Excel format). Mitochondrial contamination estimates for individuals sequenced in this study.
    • Table S5 (Microsoft Excel format). Ancient sample data set details including the number of SNPs overlapping with modern reference.
    • Table S6 (Microsoft Excel format). Outgroup f3 statistics for individuals sequenced in this study.
    • Table S7 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya and Andronovo, Afanasievo, and Sintashta.
    • Table S8 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya-Alakulskaya tested as a single population or individuals and Karasuk and other Bronze Age populations.
    • Table S9 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya-Alakulskaya tested as a single population or individuals and Yamnaya and other Bronze Age populations.
    • Table S10 (Microsoft Excel format). Diversity estimates in Bronze Age populations.
    • Table S11 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Cimmerians, Scythians, and other ancient populations.
    • Table S12 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Cimmerians, Sarmatians, and other ancient populations.
    • Table S13 (Microsoft Excel format). F3 support for different components changing with time in Cimmerians as observed in ADMIXTURE.
    • Table S14 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Srubnaya/Srubnaya-Alakulskaya and Andronovo, Afanasievo, and Sintashta.
    • Table S15 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Scythians tested as population, Yamnaya, and other Bronze Age populations.
    • Table S16 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Cimmerians tested as a population, Srubnaya/Srubnaya-Alakulskaya, and other Bronze Age populations.
    • Table S17 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics of multiway comparisons of individuals form the study together with Srubnaya.
    • Table S18 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary f4 statistics between Sarmatians and other Bronze Age populations.

    Download Tables S1 to S18

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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