Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Decoupled taxonomic and ecological recoveries from the Permo-Triassic extinction

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Science Advances  10 Oct 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat5091
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat5091
  • Fig. 1 Conceptual plot showing marine animals assigned to the three groups based on motile and nektonic abilities.

    1, corals; 2, sponges; 3, brachiopods; 4, bryozoans; 5, pelmatazoan echinoderms; 6, foraminifers; 7, epifaunal bivalves; 8, radiolarians; 9, hydrozoans; 10, eleutherozoan echinoderms; 11, infaunal bivalves; 12, gastropods; 13, annelids; 14, ostracods; 15, non-ostracod crustaceans; 16, cephalopods; 17, conodonts; 18, fishes; 19, marine reptiles.

  • Fig. 2 Generic diversity and occurrences in time bins during the Late Permian and Triassic.

    (A) Counts of all marine genera in the full data set (dash line) and estimated counts using the subsampled data (solid line; fig. S1). Data are standardized by repeatedly subsampling from a randomly generated set until a quota of 1400 occurrences has been recovered in each bin. Vertical lines show the 95% confidence intervals. (B) Subsampled generic richness in time bins. The data are the same subsampled generic richness as shown in (A) but in different time scaling. Green curve shows a logistic increase (R = 0.96, P ≪ 0.001) from Dienerian to Rhaetian. (C) Counts of marine genera in the full data set (dash lines) and using the subsampled data (solid lines). The subsampled quotas are 510, 184, and 330 for non-motile, motile, and nektonic groups, respectively. (D) Proportion of non-nektonic animals based on subsampled data in (C). Magenta curve shows a logarithmic increase (R = 0.99, P ≪ 0.001) from Dienerian to Rhaetian. (E) Proportion of marine generic occurrences among non-motile, motile, and nektonic groups. (F) Changes of generic richness and proportion in a logarithmic coordinate. Green curve presents generic richness. Magenta curve shows the proportion of non-nektonic animals. E, Early; L, Late; M, Middle; Chan, Changhsingian; Grie, Griesbachian; Di, Dienerian; S, Smithian; Sp, Spathian; Ani, Anisian; Ladi, Ladinian; Carn, Carnian; Rh, Rhaetian; Per, Permian.

  • Fig. 3 Evolution of marine ecosystems throughout the Late Permian to Late Triassic.

    (A) Functional pyramids in generic diversity among non-motile, motile, and nektonic groups from four geological intervals, indicating a reversed pyramid in the Early Triassic. The size of proportions is represented by the area of the triangles. (B) Proportion of nekton in generic occurrences (see fig. S3 for subdivisions of latitudinal regions). (C) Generic richness for all marine communities (see details in fig. S4). A community is a collection of fossils from the same stratigraphic unit in a location. Each arrow shows the number of genera for a particular community. Green color shows algae including calcareous algae (3 o’clock arrow), dinoflagellates (5 o’clock arrow), and coccoliths (6 o’clock arrow). Magenta color shows reef-building animals including corals (3 o’clock arrow) and sponges (5 o’clock). Cyan color shows non-motile animals including hydrozoans (1 o’clock arrow), radiolarians (3 o’clock arrow), brachiopods (5 o’clock arrow), epifaunal bivalves (6 o’clock arrow), bryozoans (7 o’clock arrow), pelmatazoan echinoderms (9 o’clock arrow), and foraminifers (11 o’clock arrow). Blue color shows motile animals including infaunal bivalves (3 o’clock arrow), gastropods (5 o’clock arrow), eleutherozoan echinoderms (6 o’clock arrow), and ostracods (7 o’clock arrow). Orange color shows nekton including cephalopods (3 o’clock arrow), conodonts (5 o’clock arrow), fishes (7 o’clock arrow), and marine reptile (12 o’clock arrow).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/10/eaat5091/DC1

    Fig. S1. Comparative rarefaction curves for the 17 time bins based on analysis of our global database of genus occurrences.

    Fig. S2. Comparative rarefaction curves for non-motile, motile, and swimming animals in the late Changhsingian, Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian, Spathian, early Anisian, early Carnian, and Rhaetian.

    Fig. S3. Annual mean sea surface temperature (1971–2000).

    Fig. S4. Generic richness of marine communities.

    Table S1. Conodont and ammonoid stratigraphic data for the Triassic fossil database.

    External Database S1. Late P-Tr biotic data.

    References (3238)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Comparative rarefaction curves for the 17 time bins based on analysis of our global database of genus occurrences.
    • Fig. S2. Comparative rarefaction curves for non-motile, motile, and swimming animals in the late Changhsingian, Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian, Spathian, early Anisian, early Carnian, and Rhaetian.
    • Fig. S3. Annual mean sea surface temperature (1971–2000).
    • Fig. S4. Generic richness of marine communities.
    • Table S1. Conodont and ammonoid stratigraphic data for the Triassic fossil database.
    • References (3238)

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