Global expansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 shaped by colonial migration and local adaptation

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Science Advances  17 Oct 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat5869
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat5869

Article Information

vol. 4 no. 10

Online ISSN: 
  • Received for publication March 14, 2018
  • Accepted for publication September 11, 2018
  • .

Author Information

  1. Ola B. Brynildsrud1,
  2. Caitlin S. Pepperell2,3,
  3. Philip Suffys4,
  4. Louis Grandjean5,
  5. Johana Monteserin6,7,
  6. Nadia Debech1,
  7. Jon Bohlin1,
  8. Kristian Alfsnes1,
  9. John O.-H. Pettersson1,8,9,10,
  10. Ingerid Kirkeleite1,
  11. Fatima Fandinho11,
  12. Marcia Aparecida da Silva11,
  13. Joao Perdigao12,
  14. Isabel Portugal12,
  15. Miguel Viveiros13,
  16. Taane Clark14,15,
  17. Maxine Caws16,17,
  18. Sarah Dunstan18,
  19. Phan Vuong Khac Thai19,
  20. Beatriz Lopez6,
  21. Viviana Ritacco6,7,
  22. Andrew Kitchen20,
  23. Tyler S. Brown21,
  24. Dick van Soolingen22,
  25. Mary B. O’Neill3,23,*,
  26. Kathryn E. Holt14,24,
  27. Edward J. Feil25,
  28. Barun Mathema26,
  29. Francois Balloux27 and
  30. Vegard Eldholm1,
  1. 1Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Lovisenberggata 8, 0456 Oslo, Norway.
  2. 2Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53726, USA.
  3. 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53726, USA.
  4. 4Laboratory of Molecular Biology Applied to Mycobacteria, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Avenida Brasil 4365, C.P. 926, Manguinhos 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  5. 5Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, W2 1NY, London, UK.
  6. 6Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas, ANLIS Carlos Malbran, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  7. 7Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  8. 8Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Zoonosis Science Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
  9. 9Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
  10. 10Public Health Agency of Sweden, Nobels vg 18, SE-171 82 Solna, Sweden.
  11. 11Laboratorio de Bacteriologia da Tuberculose, Centro de Referłncia Professor Helio Fraga-Jacarepagu, Estrada de Curicica 2000, Brazil.
  12. 12Instituto de Investigao do Medicamento, Faculdade de Farmcia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
  13. 13Unidade de Microbiologia Medica, Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
  14. 14Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
  15. 15Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
  16. 16Liverpool School of Tropical medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool, UK.
  17. 17Birat-Nepal Medical Trust, Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  18. 18Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
  19. 19Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for TB and Lung Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
  20. 20Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
  21. 21Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
  22. 22Center for Infectious Disease Research, Diagnostics and Perinatal Screening, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands.
  23. 23Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
  24. 24Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
  25. 25Milner Centre for Evolution, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.
  26. 26Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.
  27. 27UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
  1. Corresponding author. Email: elve{at}
  • * Present address: Unit of Human Evolutionary Genetics, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.


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