Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Tracking time with ricequakes in partially soaked brittle porous media

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Science Advances  12 Oct 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat6961
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat6961
  • Fig. 1 The problem of partially soaked brittle porous media.

    (A) Breakfast cereal. (B) Sketch of rockfill dam collapse under capillary action [inspired from (13)]. (C) Schematic of the experiment. (D) Stress over time since soaking the puffed rice revealing recurring stress drops. (E) Bursts of acoustic emission correlated with the stress drops. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 2 Deformation patterns.

    (A) Macrophotography of an area surrounding the interface between the soaked and unsaturated parts. (B) Spatiotemporal plot of the material texture under the red line in (A), which shows recurring incremental compactions during ricequakes interluded by creep phases. The red dashed line in (B) highlights the position of the interface.

  • Fig. 3 Tracking time with ricequakes.

    (A) Delays between consecutive ricequakes against time since injection, with the linear line predicted by Eq. 2 with typical micropore unit size lm = 0.6 mm. (B) Frequency distribution of micropore sizes extracted from several puffed rice cross sections, with a vertical line highlighting the typical micropore unit size lm = 0.6 mm. (C) Macrophotography of a puffed rice sliced section. (D) Overall deformation with time since injection during the experiment and based on the numerical and analytical models. (E) Magnified view of the deformation that highlights the ricequakes and the creep phase in between.

  • Fig. 4 Crushing wave model.

    (A) Micropore units as train carriages. (B) Effective saturation profile Se(z) = exp(−z/LG). (C) Stress-displacement relationship for individual carriages. The red line illustrates the deformation path under fluid activity, and the red triangle indicates the compressed length after crushing.

  • Fig. 5 Dynamic effects.

    (A) Stress drops over logarithm of time, which highlights the fast stress recovery after each ricequake all throughout the test. (B) Incremental displacements, which highlights the constancy of the creep contribution between the events.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/10/eaat6961/DC1

    Movie S1. Video of milk injection into a puffed rice column under constant pressure, focusing on the region near the saturated/unsaturated interface (the video is 15 times faster than real time).

    Audio file S1. Two-minute recording of the sound emitted during the same experiment (in real time), starting 7 minutes after fluid injection.

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Description of previous experiments from the literature, which reinforces the use of exponential decaying effective degree of saturation for systems with highly porous particles.

    References (3638)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Description of previous experiments from the literature, which reinforces the use of exponential decaying effective degree of saturation for systems with highly porous particles.
    • References (3638)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video of milk injection into a puffed rice column under constant pressure, focusing on the region near the saturated/unsaturated interface (the video is 15 times faster than real time).
    • Audio file S1 (.wav format). Two-minute recording of the sound emitted during the same experiment (in real time), starting 7 minutes after fluid injection.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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