Fluorinated solid electrolyte interphase enables highly reversible solid-state Li metal battery

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Science Advances  21 Dec 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 12, eaau9245
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau9245


Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) are receiving great interest because their high mechanical strength and transference number could potentially suppress Li dendrites and their high electrochemical stability allows the use of high-voltage cathodes, which enhances the energy density and safety of batteries. However, the much lower critical current density and easier Li dendrite propagation in SSEs than in nonaqueous liquid electrolytes hindered their possible applications. Herein, we successfully suppressed Li dendrite growth in SSEs by in situ forming an LiF-rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) between the SSEs and the Li metal. The LiF-rich SEI successfully suppresses the penetration of Li dendrites into SSEs, while the low electronic conductivity and the intrinsic electrochemical stability of LiF block side reactions between the SSEs and Li. The LiF-rich SEI enhances the room temperature critical current density of Li3PS4 to a record-high value of >2 mA cm−2. Moreover, the Li plating/stripping Coulombic efficiency was escalated from 88% of pristine Li3PS4 to more than 98% for LiF-coated Li3PS4. In situ formation of electronic insulating LiF-rich SEI provides an effective way to prevent Li dendrites in the SSEs, constituting a substantial leap toward the practical applications of next-generation high-energy solid-state Li metal batteries.

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