Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Large-scale polymeric carbon nanotube membranes with sub–1.27-nm pores

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Science Advances  09 Mar 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 3, e1700938
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700938
  • Fig. 1 Images of the membranes tested in this study.

    (A) SEM image of the CNT membrane surface, showing CNT tips emerging from the polymer. Inset shows the membrane sample without magnification. (B) SEM image of the surface of the CNT membrane using an imaging technique that uses high voltage without sputter coating to reveal the CNTs below the membrane surface. (C) TEM image of the CNT membrane in planar view, showing CNT pore openings, indicated by red circles, emerging from CNTs below the membrane surface.

  • Fig. 2 Rejection of analytes in the aqueous separation tests, with molecular dimensions increasing from left to right.

    Rejection of dyes is shown with and without a background IS of 34 mM (NaCl) to examine the effects of Donnan exclusion versus steric exclusion on solute rejection.

  • Fig. 3 Gas transport properties of CNT membranes.

    (A) Graph of the relationship between He permeance and pressure showing pressure dependence. GPU, gas permeation units. (B) Graph of the relationship between analyte/He selectivity and viscosity (viscous flow selectivity shown as a dashed line), indicating that no correlation with viscous flow is present. Viscosities for gases are taken from Yampolskii and Freeman (27). (C) Graph of the relationship between analyte molecular weight and analyte/He selectivity at 138 kPa. Knudsen selectivity is shown on the dashed line. Analyte selectivities deviate substantially from Knudsen, particularly the hydrocarbons and CO2 (shown in red data points). AMU, atomic mass units.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/3/e1700938/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    fig. S1. Experimental apparatus for RO testing.

    fig. S2. Experimental apparatus for gas permeation testing.

    fig. S3. Wireframe model of dye molecules.

    table S1. Manufacturer specifications for CNTs.

    table S2. Approximate enhancement factor for CNT composite membranes.

    References (3340)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • fig. S1. Experimental apparatus for RO testing.
    • fig. S2. Experimental apparatus for gas permeation testing.
    • fig. S3. Wireframe model of dye molecules.
    • table S1. Manufacturer specifications for CNTs.
    • table S2. Approximate enhancement factor for CNT composite membranes.
    • References (33–40)

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