Research ArticleGENETICS

A climate-associated multispecies cryptic cline in the northwest Atlantic

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  28 Mar 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 3, eaaq0929
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaq0929
  • Fig. 1 Spatial distribution of sampling, genetic structure, and climate in the NW Atlantic.

    Here, panels depict (A) species sampling distribution overlaid on the average winter bottom temperature and (B) average of binary clustering analyses to north (blue) and south (red) overlaid on the average spring sea surface temperature (SST). Solid and dashed lines (means ± SD) denote the clinal inflection point. Temperatures on both panels represent an aggregate of seasons from 2002 to 2012. Sampling summary provided for each species in (A) (number of sites, number of samples). Inset in (B) shows range of map panels in reference to the western Atlantic coast. Refer to table S1 for species data source references.

  • Fig. 2 Spatial clustering analysis using STRUCTURE, discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), and spatial principal components analysis (sPCA) modeled as a function of latitude.

    Here, assignment probability and admixture are relative to the southern population, and sPCA scores have been rescaled between 0 and 1 to align with other coefficients. Model fits are presented with standard error (dashed lines). Dashed vertical lines denote modeled intercepts.

  • Fig. 3 Environmental relationships for bottom temperature and assignment probability (DAPC, solid line), admixture (STRUCTURE, short dashed line), and lagged sPCA first axis score (sPCA, long dashed line).

    Here, assignment probability and admixture are relative to the southern population, and sPCA scores have been rescaled between 0 and 1 to align with other coefficients. Points colored by latitude up to 50°N. Insets show distribution of temperature variables partitioned between southern and northern (N) and southern (S) groups as defined by the cline. Temperature measurements were taken at the bottom for winter and fall and at the surface for spring and the annual minimum.

  • Fig. 4 Mean distributional shifts ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for northern and southern groups of each species.

    (A) Northward shifts in the centroid of each population group, (B) northward shifts in the clinal breakpoint between population groups, and (C) net change in the spatial extent of suitable habitat for each population group.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/3/eaaq0929/DC1

    fig. S1. Pairwise comparisons of least-cost path distances among species sample stations and the Cartesian projection distances using nonmetric multidimensional scaling.

    fig. S2. Spatial clustering analysis using STRUCTURE, DAPC, and sPCA as a function of along-shore distance.

    table S1. Sources and metadata for combined genetic analysis.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Pairwise comparisons of least-cost path distances among species sample stations and the Cartesian projection distances using nonmetric multidimensional scaling.
    • fig. S2. Spatial clustering analysis using STRUCTURE, DAPC, and sPCA as a function of along-shore distance.
    • table S1. Sources and metadata for combined genetic analysis.

    Download PDF

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article