Research ArticleECOLOGY

Guns, germs, and trees determine density and distribution of gorillas and chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa

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Science Advances  25 Apr 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 4, eaar2964
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar2964

Article Information

vol. 4 no. 4

Online ISSN: 
History: 
  • Received for publication November 16, 2017
  • Accepted for publication March 12, 2018

Author Information

  1. Samantha Strindberg1,*,
  2. Fiona Maisels1,2,*,
  3. Elizabeth A. Williamson2,,
  4. Stephen Blake1,3,,
  5. Emma J. Stokes1,
  6. Rostand Aba’a1,§,
  7. Gaspard Abitsi1,
  8. Anthony Agbor4,5,
  9. Ruffin D. Ambahe1,
  10. Parfait C. Bakabana1,
  11. Martha Bechem1,6,
  12. Antoine Berlemont5,
  13. Bruno Bokoto de Semboli7,,
  14. Patrick R. Boundja1,
  15. Nicolas Bout1,
  16. Thomas Breuer1,
  17. Genevieve Campbell4,||,
  18. Pauwel De Wachter7,
  19. Marc Ella Akou7,**,
  20. Fidel Esono Mba8,
  21. Anna T. C. Feistner7,††,
  22. Bernard Fosso1,
  23. Roger Fotso1,
  24. David Greer7,
  25. Clement Inkamba-Nkulu1,
  26. Calixte F. Iyenguet1,
  27. Kathryn J. Jeffery2,
  28. Max Kokangoye1,**,
  29. Hjalmar S. Kühl4,9,
  30. Stephanie Latour1,10,
  31. Bola Madzoke1,
  32. Calixte Makoumbou1,‡‡,
  33. Guy-Aimé F. Malanda1,‡‡,
  34. Richard Malonga1,
  35. Victor Mbolo7,
  36. David B. Morgan1,11,
  37. Prosper Motsaba1,
  38. Gabin Moukala1,
  39. Brice S. Mowawa1,‡‡,
  40. Mizuki Murai4,5,§§,
  41. Christian Ndzai1,
  42. Tomoaki Nishihara1,
  43. Zacharie Nzooh7,
  44. Lilian Pintea10,
  45. Amy Pokempner1,¶¶,
  46. Hugo J. Rainey1,
  47. Tim Rayden1,
  48. Heidi Ruffler5,||||,
  49. Crickette M. Sanz1,12,
  50. Angelique Todd7,***,
  51. Hilde Vanleeuwe1,
  52. Ashley Vosper1,
  53. Ymke Warren1,** and
  54. David S. Wilkie1
  1. 1Wildlife Conservation Society, Global Conservation Program, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, NY 10460, USA.
  2. 2Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.
  3. 3Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, Macelwane Hall, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA.
  4. 4Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
  5. 5Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA.
  6. 6Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)–Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), MIKE Subregional Office, Yaoundé, BP 5506, Cameroon.
  7. 7World Wildlife Fund International, Regional Office for Africa, BP 6776 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
  8. 8Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Forestal y Gestión del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas, Bata, Equatorial Guinea.
  9. 9Robert Bosch Junior Professor, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Leipzig-Jena, Leipzig, Germany.
  10. 10The Jane Goodall Institute, 1595 Spring Hill Road, Suite 550, Vienna, VA 22182, USA.
  11. 11Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo, 2001 North Clark Street, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
  12. 12Department of Anthropology, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
  1. Corresponding author. Email: e.a.williamson{at}stir.ac.uk
    • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

    • Present address: Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Schlossallee 2, D-78315 Radolfzell, Germany.

    • § Present address: Agence Nationale des Parcs Nationaux, Batterie IV, BP 20379 Libreville, Gabon.

    • Present address: Ministère des Eaux, Forêts, Chasse et Pêche, BP 830 Bangui, Central African Republic.

    • || Present address: The Biodiversity Consultancy Ltd., 3E King’s Parade, Cambridge CB2 1SJ, UK.

    • ** Deceased.

    • †† Present address: Centre for Conservation and Sustainability, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, BP 48 Gamba, Gabon.

    • ‡‡ Present address: Ministère de l’Economie Forestière de Développement Durable et de l’Environnement, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

    • §§ Present address: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.

    • ¶¶ Present address: National Geographic Society, Impact Initiatives, 1145 17th Street Northwest, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

    • |||| Present address: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, International Affairs, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041–3803, USA.

    • *** Present address: Flora and Fauna International, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.

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