Research ArticleENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Thirdhand smoke uptake to aerosol particles in the indoor environment

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Science Advances  09 May 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 5, eaap8368
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aap8368
  • Fig. 1 Aerosol chemical composition and I/O ratios.

    (A and B) Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) species average contributions (A) and histogram of hourly I/O ratio (B) for all reported chemical species. Values less than 1 indicate loss from outdoor to indoor transport and weak or absent indoor sources, whereas values greater than 1 indicate a source in the indoor environment. Sulfate is a proxy for nonvolatile particle loss from outdoor to indoor transport. HOA, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol; OOA, oxygenated organic aerosol; COA, cooking organic aerosol.

  • Fig. 2 Laboratory investigation of THS partitioning.

    (A) AMS-measured organic aerosol concentration when a filter was placed on the inlet to the Pyrex vessel and particle-free air passed through the jar. (B and C) Concentration of outdoor organic aerosol and outdoor organic aerosol sampled through the Pyrex vessel with deposited smoke and the mass fraction of the organic aerosol from CxHyNz ions in the mass spectrum on days 1 and 8 after smoke deposition. (D and E) Mass spectra associated with the added THS species on days 1 and 8, respectively. (F) THS mass spectrum from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis for comparison of CxHyNz ion signals.

  • Fig. 3 Correlation of THS with indoor aerosol components.

    The black dots show the scatter plot of the concentration of the THS factor versus the total indoor aerosol minus THS factor. The green dots show the scatter plot of THS factor concentration versus the indoor organic aerosol minus the THS factor.

  • Fig. 4 Proposed mechanism of partitioning to aerosol of RdNS from THS.

    (A and B) Cigarette smoke components (SHS and THS) are introduced into the indoor environment from volatilization off of clothing (A) or SHS emission or penetration (B). (C) Once indoors, smoke vapors can partition and aerosol particles deposit to surfaces in the indoor environment. (D to F) Chemical processing and reactions with indoor oxidants (D) can modify the deposited chemical species. Strong bases such as ammonia can deprotonate deposited species (E), leading to volatilization of semivolatile compounds to the gas phase (F). These species can repartition to surfaces or undergo reactive uptake into the acidic aqueous phase of aerosols. (G) Once in the particle phase, these species are able to be transported through a building via natural or forced convection.

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/5/eaap8368/DC1

    fig. S1. The fraction of CxHyNz ion signal for organic aerosol in the indoor and outdoor data as a function of season.

    fig. S2. Time series of summer aerosol measurements.

    fig. S3. Mass spectra of factors determined from PMF.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. The fraction of CxHyNz ion signal for organic aerosol in the indoor and outdoor data as a function of season.
    • fig. S2. Time series of summer aerosol measurements.
    • fig. S3. Mass spectra of factors determined from PMF.

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