Research ArticleEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

Evolutionary divergence in competitive mating success through female mating bias for good genes

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Science Advances  23 May 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 5, eaaq0369
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaq0369
  • Fig. 1 Effect of selection history (success-selected, solid; failure-selected, open), cross (outbred and inbred), and sex on fitness-related traits.

    (A) Standardized male mating success. Ten inbred and 10 outbred males from each of 10 replicate families per line were assayed (n = 678 matings total from 1600 mating trials). We conducted mating trials on four consecutive days, with one line from each treatment performed on each day. The day on which we conducted the mating trials significantly influenced the proportion of experimental males that acquired a mate, and therefore, we standardized mating success to have a mean of zero and SD of one for each day. (B) Egg-to-adult viability. We assayed the egg-to-adult viability of offspring from up to 25 brother-sister and 25 unrelated pairs across five families for each line (n = 362 crosses total). (C) Desiccation resistance. For each line, approximately 100 males and 100 females were desiccated until death in 10 replicate vials (n = 1546 total). Units are log minutes to death. (D) Sperm competitiveness (P2). Sperm competitiveness was quantified against a brown-eyed mutant fly strain as the proportion of offspring sired by the experimental male (n = 28 success-selected and 34 failure-selected males). Means and SEs are of four replicate selection lines for each selection regimen. Joining lines are for illustrative purposes only.

  • Table 1 Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding (cross), and sex on fitness-related traits.

    Model 1 is a generalized linear mixed model, whereas model 2 is a linear mixed model. Each model was also analyzed with a randomization test (1000 permutations). Bold font indicates significance at α = 0.05.

    TraitSourcedfχ2P
    Model 1Model 2Randomization
    Male mating successRegimen110.460.0010.002
    Cross14.750.0290.029
    Regimen × Cross11.400.2370.129
    Egg-to-adult viabilityRegimen11.890.1690.174
    Cross13.120.0780.081
    Regimen × Cross14.630.0310.035
    Wing size (squared)Regimen13.990.0460.034
    Sperm competitivenessRegimen15.910.0150.021
    Desiccation resistance (log-transformed)Regimen10.100.7580.755
    Sex11379.09<0.001<0.001
    Regimen × Sex10.060.8050.791
    Female fecundityRegimen10.510.4760.426
    Cross10.560.4550.430
    Regimen × Cross10.070.7930.793
    Female productivityRegimen10.050.8160.811

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/5/eaaq0369/DC1

    fig. S1. Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding, and sex on fitness-related traits from experimental, control, and stock populations.

    fig. S2. Standardized male mating success of outbred (black) and inbred (white) flies from the 12 selection/control lines.

    fig. S3. Relationship between standardized male mating success inbreeding load.

    fig. S4. Male mating success of outbred and inbred flies from success-selected (black circles) and failure-selected (white circles) populations.

    table S1. Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding (cross), and their interaction on male mating success of all lines, success-selected v control lines, and failure-selected v control lines.

    table S2. Effect of sex, weight, and their interaction on the desiccation resistance of males and females from the stock population.

    table S3. Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding (cross), and their interaction on wing size and egg-to-adult viability of size-selected lines.

    table S4. Sample sizes for all measured traits.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding, and sex on fitness-related traits from experimental, control, and stock populations.
    • fig. S2. Standardized male mating success of outbred (black) and inbred (white) flies from the 12 selection/control lines.
    • fig. S3. Relationship between standardized male mating success inbreeding load.
    • fig. S4. Male mating success of outbred and inbred flies from success-selected (black circles) and failure-selected (white circles) populations.
    • table S1. Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding (cross), and their interaction on male mating success of all lines, success-selected v control lines, and failure-selected v control lines.
    • table S2. Effect of sex, weight, and their interaction on the desiccation resistance of males and females from the stock population.
    • table S3. Effect of selection regimen, inbreeding (cross), and their interaction on wing size and egg-to-adult viability of size-selected lines.
    • table S4. Sample sizes for all measured traits.

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