Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Biomimetic enzyme cascade reaction system in microfluidic electrospray microcapsules

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Science Advances  15 Jun 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 6, eaat2816
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat2816
  • Fig. 1 Schematics of the preparation of the bioinspired microcapsules.

    (A) Schematic of the enzyme cascade reaction in a cell. (B) Schematic of the enzyme cascade reaction in the microcapsule encapsulated with enzyme-immobilized inverse opal particles. (C) Schematic of the microcapsule generation process with the microfluidic electrospray.

  • Fig. 2 SEM images and metalloscope images of the inverse opal particles.

    (A) The surface and (B) the inner side of an inverse opal particle with a higher concentration of the cross-linker. (C to E) Reflection images of the green, red, and blue inverse opal particles. (F) Reflection peaks and reflection images of five different inverse opal particles. RP, reflective percent. Scale bars, 500 nm (A), 2 μm (B), and 100 μm (C to E).

  • Fig. 3 The stereomicroscope images of the microcapsules with different cores.

    (A to C) One core. (D and E) Two cores. (F) Three cores. Scale bars, 400 μm.

  • Fig. 4 The catalytic activity of the microcapsules.

    (A) Catalytic activity of HRP microcapsules and free HRP particles before and after treatment with trypsin. (B) Catalytic capability of the β-G–, GOD-, and HRP-immobilized inverse opal particles with and without encapsulations.

  • Fig. 5 Biocatalysis of the microcapsules during the cell culture.

    (A to C) Fluorescent staining of the cells (A) in alcohol mixed medium, (B) in the mixed medium of alcohol and AOx-encapsulated microcapsules, and (C) in the mixed medium of alcohol and AOx/Cat co-encapsulated microcapsules. (D) Corresponding cell viabilities. Scale bars, 50 μm.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/6/eaat2816/DC1

    fig. S1. The confocal laser scanning microscopy images of the immobilized protein in the inverse opal particles.

    fig. S2. SEM image characterization.

    fig. S3. Optical image characterization.

    fig. S4. The effects of trypsin on the enzyme cascade reaction.

    fig. S5. The schematic of the microfluidic chip, real-time images of microcapsule generation, and the relationship between the diameter of the microcapsules and voltage.

    fig. S6. The image of dissected microcapsules.

    fig. S7. The cytotoxicity of different media and cascade reaction of alcohol.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. The confocal laser scanning microscopy images of the immobilized protein in the inverse opal particles.
    • fig. S2. SEM image characterization.
    • fig. S3. Optical image characterization.
    • fig. S4. The effects of trypsin on the enzyme cascade reaction.
    • fig. S5. The schematic of the microfluidic chip, real-time images of microcapsule generation, and the relationship between the diameter of the microcapsules and voltage.
    • fig. S6. The image of dissected microcapsules.
    • fig. S7. The cytotoxicity of different media and cascade reaction of alcohol.

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