Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

Global hot spots of transshipment of fish catch at sea

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Science Advances  25 Jul 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 7, eaat7159
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat7159
  • Fig. 1 Transshipment of catch at sea.

    Example AIS tracks of reefer (black) and fishing vessels (colors), port calls (asterisks), likely transshipment encounters (red circles), and potential encounters (white circle) in the (A) Atlantic and (B) Pacific are shown. EEZs are outlined in light gray. Note that tracking data for fishing vessels are missing for some likely encounters, but reefers exhibited behavior consistent to an encounter.

  • Fig. 2 Global patterns of transshipment for different fishing gears.

    All likely encounters (colored dots) between reefers and fishing vessels as identified from AIS data spanning 2012 to 2017 and separated by fishing gear type are shown. EEZs are outlined in light gray, and pictograms illustrate major target species.

  • Fig. 3 Relative extent of transshipment for different types of fishing gear.

    The fishing effort (estimated fishing hours) that is (A) landed directly in port versus (B) transshipped and brought to port by reefer is shown. Data are separated by fishing gear type (left) and for EEZs versus the high seas. Data include fishing vessels that, at least once, have met up with a reefer. Gears represent more common gears used by fishing vessels involved in encounters. Pictograms denote major target species by gear type.

  • Fig. 4 Spatial patterns of landed versus transshipped fishing effort.

    The spatial distribution and intensity (fishing hours per square kilometer) of fishing effort for each gear type landed directly (A) by fishing vessel or (B) by reefer after transshipment at sea between 2012 and 2017 are shown.

  • Fig. 5 Tuna case study.

    The path of albacore tuna from fishing location to retail shelf is shown. Reefer and fishing vessel tracks are in purple and blue, respectively, the area of fishing and transshipment is denoted by a dashed black rectangle, and EEZ boundaries are in light gray. (A) Fishing and transshipment off Mauritius, port call into Port Louis, (B) close-up of transshipment event (dashed red circle). (C) Tracks of three reefers and 13 fishing vessels from January 2017 to February 2018. (1-A) and (1-B) (dashed rectangles) denote fishing and transshipment areas, (2) ports (asterisks) where reefers landed whole fish and fish is cut, (3) transport to reprocessing and canning facilities, and (4) transport of final product to retail.

  • Table 1 Direct landing or transshipment of catch in EEZs versus the high seas.

    The percentages of fishing hours landed directly in port by fishing vessel or transshipped at sea and landed by reefer are shown. Data are separated by fishing gear and for EEZs and the high seas (HS; bold). Percentages are given for fishing in all EEZs and for the Russian EEZ separately because of outstanding importance of transshipment for Russian fleets.

    In EEZIn HS
    Landed directly (%)Landed directly from Russian EEZ (%)Transshipped (%)Transshipped from Russian EEZ (%)Landed directly (%)Transshipped (%)
    Trawler 84.397.981.297.241.815.3
    Longliner 8.11.213.71.847.064.5
    Purse seiner 7.10.50.60.068.30.1
    Squid jigger 0.50.44.40.92.920.1

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/7/eaat7159/DC1

    Fig. S1. Activity profiles of fishing vessels at sea.

    Fig. S2. Reefers and fishing vessels involved in likely encounters between 2012 and 2017 worldwide by flag.

    Fig. S3. Correlation between the number of rendezvous from 2012 to 2017 and IUU fishing by FAO region (P = 0.1626).

    Fig. S4. Likely encounter between reefer flagged to Liberia (orange) and a Japanese longline fishing vessel (blue) off the west coast of Southern Africa.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Activity profiles of fishing vessels at sea.
    • Fig. S2. Reefers and fishing vessels involved in likely encounters between 2012 and 2017 worldwide by flag.
    • Fig. S3. Correlation between the number of rendezvous from 2012 to 2017 and IUU fishing by FAO region (P = 0.1626).
    • Fig. S4. Likely encounter between reefer flagged to Liberia (orange) and a Japanese longline fishing vessel (blue) off the west coast of Southern Africa.

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