Research ArticleENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Nighttime light data reveal how flood protection shapes human proximity to rivers

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Science Advances  22 Aug 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 8, eaar5779
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar5779
  • Fig. 1 Study areas.

    World map showing Earth nightlight data and the 16 large-scale study areas, including the four local hot spots [(A) St. Louis, Missouri; (B) Limpopo; (C) Mekong; and (D) Brisbane] for the local scale analysis and the 16 countries (read borders) for the large-scale analysis. The insets show the main river, flood extent, and the administrative boundaries used for each study area (see the Supplementary Materials). [Earth city lights credit: Data courtesy of M. Imhoff of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and C. Elvidge of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Geophysical Data (NGDC). Image courtesy of C. Mayhew and R. Simmon of NASA GSFC.]

  • Fig. 2 Large-scale analysis at the country level.

    Average change of human proximity to rivers in the period 1992–2013 versus (A) normalized flood fatalities, that is, divided by total population for each individual year, and (B) ranges of flood protection level, that is, log value of the return period of structural measures.

  • Fig. 3 Human proximity to rivers.

    Average distance of human settlements to the river (left axis, full black dots) and fraction of inundated area occupied by nightlights (right axis, empty diamonds), with a distance threshold of 10 km from the river, between 1992 and 2013 for Limpopo [average distance change, 1800 m (A)], Mekong [average distance change, 900 m (B)], Brisbane [average distance change, 140 m (C)], and St. Louis [average distance change, 70 m (D)].

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/8/eaar5779/DC1

    Supplementary Materials

    Fig. S1. Large-scale analysis: trends in human proximity to rivers.

    Fig. S2. Results of the robustness test: leave-one-out approach.

    Table S1. Satellite imagery used for estimation and delineation of maximum flood extent.

    Table S2. Administrative areas considered for the four study areas that were affected by the occurrence of flooding.

    Table S3. Observation year, satellite number, and nightlight satellite data set.

    References (4749)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials
    • Fig. S1. Large-scale analysis: trends in human proximity to rivers.
    • Fig. S2. Results of the robustness test: leave-one-out approach.
    • Table S1. Satellite imagery used for estimation and delineation of maximum flood extent.
    • Table S2. Administrative areas considered for the four study areas that were affected by the occurrence of flooding.
    • Table S3. Observation year, satellite number, and nightlight satellite data set.
    • References (4749)

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