Research ArticleEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

The dual role of Amazonian rivers in the generation and maintenance of avian diversity

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Science Advances  01 Aug 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 8, eaar8575
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar8575
  • Fig. 1 General location of the Rio Negro basin in northern Amazonia.

    The Rio Negro is divided into lower (red) and upper (black) segments, indicating their differential effect in taxon turnover. The Guiana Shield, as defined by Osmonson and co-workers (69), is outlined in yellow. Letters represent general biogeographical regions mentioned in the text: (A) Guianan area of endemism, (B) Branco/Negro interfluve, and (C) west bank of the Rio Negro. Numbers represent geographic features mentioned in the text: (1) Rio Uraricoera, (2) Rio Tacutu, (3) Roraima-Rupununi savannas, and (4) Essequibo River.

  • Fig. 2 Phylogenetic tree of a hypothetical terra-firme forest avian community in the Guianan area of endemism.

    This hypothetical avian community includes 331 species and represents a typical resident avifauna north of the Amazon River and east of the Branco and Negro rivers. This list is based on the study of Cohn-Haft et al. (55), with minor modifications to include some species absent from central Amazonia but present elsewhere in the Guianan Area of Endemism. In red are 86 avian lineages that have geographic replacements across the lower Rio Negro, 74 of which were included in this study, showing how widespread is the cross-river replacement phenomenon in this region. Red dots were placed at the basal node of each family included in this study. Values following family names represent the number of species expected to occur in our hypothetical avian community and the number of species with cross-river replacements within each family.

  • Fig. 3 Avian replacement patterns in the Rio Negro basin.

    (A) “Rio Branco pattern,” in which turnover of the taxon pair occurs across the lower Rio Negro (red) and the Rio Branco (white), here represented by two species of barbets, Capito auratus (west) and Capito niger (east). (B) “Rio Negro pattern,” in which turnover of the taxon pair occurs across the lower (red) and upper (black) Rio Negro, here represented by two species of antbirds, Gymnopithys bicolor (west) and Gymnopithys rufigula (east). (C) “Branco/Negro interfluve pattern,” in which turnover occurs across the lower Rio Negro, but upstream the turnover is not river-bounded and occurs somewhere within the interfluve, here represented by two species of nunbirds, Monasa morphoeus (west) and Monasa atra (east).

  • Fig. 4 Time since divergence of 74 pairs of avian taxa (species and subspecies) that replace across the lower Rio Negro and other barriers upstream.

    Open circles refer to pairs divided by the Rio Branco (pattern A in Fig. 3), solid circles refer to pairs divided by the lower and upper Rio Negro (pattern B in Fig. 3), and triangles refer to pairs divided by the lower Rio Negro but not river-bounded within the Branco/Negro interfluvium (pattern C in Fig. 3). Symbols represent mean time of divergence, and lines represent their respective credible intervals (see table S1).

  • Fig. 5 Bayesian model support for independent comparisons of simultaneous divergence in multiple pairs of co-distributed avian taxa across the Rio Negro (3 to 16 pairs) and the Rio Branco (5 to 28 pairs).

    Solid line represents the Bayes factor value for Ω < 0.01 (degree of discordance of the variance of population divergences), where the dashed line represents the value for Ψ = 1 (number of divergence times or speciation pulses). Strong evidence for a single diversification pulse is indicated by Bayes factor values > 10 in models where both hyperparameters (Ψ and Ω) are consistent with a single pulse (that is, Ψ = 1 and Ω < 0.01). The red horizontal line indicates this threshold (K = 10). The data are consistent with a single diversification pulse for 8 to 12 pairs across the Rio Negro but reject a common diversification scenario for pairs across the Rio Branco.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/8/eaar8575/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Table S1. List of 74 pairs of avian taxa with geographic replacements across the lower Rio Negro included in this study.

    Table S2. Taxon pairs bounded by the Rio Negro used to test simultaneous divergence scenarios using an hABC approach, including sample sizes of each population and summary statistics (scaled by base pair).

    Table S3. Taxon pairs bounded by the Rio Branco used to test simultaneous divergence scenarios using an hABC approach, including sample sizes of each population and summary statistics (scaled by base pair).

    Table S4. Twelve pairs of taxa bounded by the Rio Negro for which a scenario of single diversification was supported by an hABC sequential approach, including their time since divergence and phylogenetic relationships.

    Fig. S1. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Psophia, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S2. Time-calibrated tree of the Megascops watsonii complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S3. Time-calibrated tree of the Phaethornis superciliosus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S4. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Topaza, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S5. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Thalurania, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S6. Time-calibrated tree of the Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S7. Time-calibrated tree of the Amazonian Motmot (Momotus momota), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S8. Time-calibrated tree of the Galbula albirostris complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S9. Time-calibrated tree of the Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S10. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Monasa, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S11. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Capito, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S12. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Ramphastos, with emphasis on the R. tucanus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S13. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Ramphastos, with emphasis on the R. vitellinus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S14. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Selenidera, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S15. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pteroglossus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S16. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Veniliornis, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S17. Time-calibrated tree of the Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S18. Time-calibrated tree of the Celeus torquatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S19. Time-calibrated tree of the Celeus elegans complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S20. Time-calibrated tree of the Celeus undatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S21. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Brotogeris, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S22. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pyrilia, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S23. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Epinecrophylla, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S24. Time-calibrated tree of the Pygmy Antwren (M. brachyura) complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S25. Time-calibrated tree of the White-flanked Antwren (M. axillaris), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S26. Time-calibrated tree of the Grey Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S27. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Isleria, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S28. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Mouse-colored Antshrike (Thamnophilus murinus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S29. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S30. Time-calibrated tree of the Fasciated Antshrike (C. lineatus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S31. Time-calibrated tree of the Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevius), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S32. Time-calibrated tree of the Spot-winged Antbird (Myrmelastes leucostigma), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S33. Time-calibrated tree of the Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S34. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Percnostola, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S35. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Cercomacra with emphasis on C. cinerascens, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S36. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Cercomacroides with emphasis on C. tyrannina, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S37. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Hypocnemis, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S38. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pithys, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S39. Time-calibrated tree of the Willisornis complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S40. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Gymnopithys, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S41. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Myrmothera, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S42. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Dendrocincla with emphasis on D. fuliginosa, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S43. Time-calibrated tree of the White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S44. Time-calibrated tree of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S45. Time-calibrated tree of the Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S46. Time-calibrated tree of the Xiphorhynchus ocellatus species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S47. Time-calibrated tree of the Xiphorhynchus guttatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S48. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Campylorhamphus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S49. Time-calibrated tree of the L. albolineatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S50. Time-calibrated tree of the Dendrocolaptes certhia complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S51. Time-calibrated tree of the Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S52. Time-calibrated tree of the Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S53. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Automolus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S54. Time-calibrated tree of the Ruddy Spinetail (Synallaxis rutilans), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S55. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Tyranneutes, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S56. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Lepidothrix, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S57. Time-calibrated tree of the Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S58. Time-calibrated tree of the Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S59. Time-calibrated tree of the Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus erythrurus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S60. Time-calibrated tree of the Schiffornis turdina species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S61. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Iodopleura, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S62. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Phoenicircus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S63. Time-calibrated tree of the Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S64. Time-calibrated tree of the Golden-crowned Spadebill (Platyrinchus coronatus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S65. Time-calibrated tree of the Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S66. Time-calibrated tree of the Grey-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S67. Time-calibrated tree of the White-eyed Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus zosterops), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S68. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Zimmerius, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S69. Time-calibrated tree of the Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Tunchiornis ochraceiceps), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S70. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pachysylvia, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S71. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Microcerculus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S72. Time-calibrated tree of the Coraya Wren (Pheugopedius coraya), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S73. Time-calibrated tree of the Fulvous-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus surinamus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Fig. S74. Time-calibrated tree of the Euphonia cayennensis species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.

    Supplementary Appendix. List of tissue samples and voucher specimens for each taxon (including subspecies when relevant) with their general collecting locality.

    References (70101)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Table S1. List of 74 pairs of avian taxa with geographic replacements across the lower Rio Negro included in this study.
    • Table S2. Taxon pairs bounded by the Rio Negro used to test simultaneous divergence scenarios using an hABC approach, including sample sizes of each population and summary statistics (scaled by base pair).
    • Table S3. Taxon pairs bounded by the Rio Branco used to test simultaneous divergence scenarios using an hABC approach, including sample sizes of each population and summary statistics (scaled by base pair).
    • Table S4. Twelve pairs of taxa bounded by the Rio Negro for which a scenario of single diversification was supported by an hABC sequential approach, including their time since divergence and phylogenetic relationships.
    • Fig. S1. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Psophia, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S2. Time-calibrated tree of the Megascops watsonii complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S3. Time-calibrated tree of the Phaethornis superciliosus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S4. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Topaza, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S5. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Thalurania, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S6. Time-calibrated tree of the Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S7. Time-calibrated tree of the Amazonian Motmot (Momotus momota), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S8. Time-calibrated tree of the Galbula albirostris complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S9. Time-calibrated tree of the Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S10. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Monasa, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S11. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Capito, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S12. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Ramphastos, with emphasis on the R. tucanus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S13. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Ramphastos, with emphasis on the R. vitellinus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S14. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Selenidera, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S15. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pteroglossus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S16. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Veniliornis, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S17. Time-calibrated tree of the Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S18. Time-calibrated tree of the Celeus torquatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S19. Time-calibrated tree of the Celeus elegans complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S20. Time-calibrated tree of the Celeus undatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S21. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Brotogeris, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S22. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pyrilia, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S23. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Epinecrophylla, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S24. Time-calibrated tree of the Pygmy Antwren (M. brachyura) complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S25. Time-calibrated tree of the White-flanked Antwren (M. axillaris), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S26. Time-calibrated tree of the Grey Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S27. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Isleria, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S28. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Mouse-colored Antshrike (Thamnophilus murinus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S29. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S30. Time-calibrated tree of the Fasciated Antshrike (C. lineatus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S31. Time-calibrated tree of the Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevius), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S32. Time-calibrated tree of the Spot-winged Antbird (Myrmelastes leucostigma), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S33. Time-calibrated tree of the Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S34. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Percnostola, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S35. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Cercomacra with emphasis on C. cinerascens, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S36. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Cercomacroides with emphasis on C. tyrannina, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S37. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Hypocnemis, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S38. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pithys, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S39. Time-calibrated tree of the Willisornis complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S40. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Gymnopithys, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S41. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Myrmothera, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S42. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Dendrocincla with emphasis on D. fuliginosa, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S43. Time-calibrated tree of the White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S44. Time-calibrated tree of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S45. Time-calibrated tree of the Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S46. Time-calibrated tree of the Xiphorhynchus ocellatus species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S47. Time-calibrated tree of the Xiphorhynchus guttatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S48. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Campylorhamphus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S49. Time-calibrated tree of the L. albolineatus complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S50. Time-calibrated tree of the Dendrocolaptes certhia complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S51. Time-calibrated tree of the Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S52. Time-calibrated tree of the Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S53. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Automolus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S54. Time-calibrated tree of the Ruddy Spinetail (Synallaxis rutilans), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S55. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Tyranneutes, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S56. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Lepidothrix, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S57. Time-calibrated tree of the Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S58. Time-calibrated tree of the Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S59. Time-calibrated tree of the Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus erythrurus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S60. Time-calibrated tree of the Schiffornis turdina species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S61. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Iodopleura, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S62. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Phoenicircus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S63. Time-calibrated tree of the Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S64. Time-calibrated tree of the Golden-crowned Spadebill (Platyrinchus coronatus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S65. Time-calibrated tree of the Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S66. Time-calibrated tree of the Grey-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S67. Time-calibrated tree of the White-eyed Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus zosterops), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S68. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Zimmerius, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S69. Time-calibrated tree of the Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Tunchiornis ochraceiceps), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S70. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Pachysylvia, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S71. Time-calibrated tree of the genus Microcerculus, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S72. Time-calibrated tree of the Coraya Wren (Pheugopedius coraya), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S73. Time-calibrated tree of the Fulvous-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus surinamus), indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • Fig. S74. Time-calibrated tree of the Euphonia cayennensis species complex, indicating crown age, phylogenetic relationship, and location of geographic break of the two replacing forms in the Guiana Shield.
    • References (70101)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Supplementary Appendix (.pdf format). List of tissue samples and voucher specimens for each taxon (including subspecies when relevant) with their general collecting locality.

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