Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

Combating transnational organized crime by linking multiple large ivory seizures to the same dealer

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Science Advances  19 Sep 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 9, eaat0625
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0625
  • Fig. 1 Genetically matched tusks between large ivory seizures.

    Large ivory seizures made between December 2011 and May 2014, with (A) and without (B) genetically matched tusks between the seizures. The location, date, and weight [in metric tons (t)] of each seizure are written in the lower left corner of each map. The locations where each seizure transited out of Africa are indicated by large colored circles (maroon, orange, and green), with the exception of unique ports (black diamonds) that appear only once. Countries colored dark brown indicate poaching centers (5). The genetically assigned geographic origin of each tusk within the seizure is illustrated by blue circles. Matched tusks between seizures are indicated by solid red circles. Double headed arrows connect matched seizures; arrow thickness denotes the number of matching samples between the two seizures; and arrow color corresponds to the last common port of transit between matched seizures. Seizures linked by one or more types of nongenetic forensic evidence are indicated by the same number in the upper left-hand corner of their respective maps. 1 = same clearing agent, shared cell phone number, vehicle or owner of vehicle transporting ivory, owner of shipment, law enforcement impressions; 2 = ivory concealed under sawn mahogany planks.

  • Table 1 Likelihood ratios for matched pairs of ivory samples between seizures.
    Sample 1Sample 2SpeciesLR (unrelated)LR (half sib)LR (parent-offspring)LR (full sib)
    AVP.EBB.154KKP015Savannah5.92 × 10114.57 × 1086.19 × 1063.54 × 104
    Uganda Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    AVP.EBB.239KKP009Savannah4.60 × 10121.82 × 1091.27 × 1071.02 × 105
    Uganda Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    AVP.EBB.391KKP347Savannah1.04 × 10111.37 × 1081.86 × 1063.72 × 104
    Uganda Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    DUB030KSP046Savannah6.05 × 1091.38 × 1069.94 × 1035.24 × 101
    Dubai May 2013 1.5tKenya Jan 2013 3.8t
    DUB060KCM045Savannah1.14 × 10118.65 × 1072.08 × 1068.36 × 103
    Dubai May 2013 1.5tKenya Oct 2013 2.9t
    DUB065KSP139Savannah1.23 × 10112.61 × 1084.51 × 1064.40 × 104
    Dubai May 2013 1.5tKenya Jan 2013 3.8t
    DUB141KCM026Savannah1.07 × 10126.61 × 1088.73 × 1065.14 × 104
    Dubai May 2013 1.5tKenya Oct 2013 2.9t
    DUB142KCM019Savannah2.34 × 10111.12 × 1075.42 × 1041.81 × 102
    Dubai May 2013 1.5tKenya Oct 2013 2.9t
    KAD06KSP001Savannah3.01 × 1075.39 × 1048.26 × 1022.64 × 101
    Kenya Sep 2011 0.3tKenya Jan 2013 3.8t
    KCM054KX093Savannah6.91 × 1025.56 × 1002.46 × 10−17.73 × 10−2
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Oct 2013 2.0t
    KCM111KX038Savannah3.14 × 10121.50 × 1091.49 × 1076.96 × 104
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Oct 2013 2.0t
    KCM118KX100Savannah1.71 × 10112.01 × 1083.77 × 1062.69 × 104
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Oct 2013 2.0t
    KCM140MYS1916Savannah2.32 × 10134.75 × 1094.18 × 1079.87 × 104
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tMalaysia Dec 2012 6.0t
    KCM160UG.B137Savannah3.80 × 1061.37 × 1031.43 × 1012.38 × 101
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tUganda May 2014 1.8t
    KCM168UG.B131Savannah1.07 × 10147.15 × 1094.20 × 1077.64 × 104
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tUganda May 2014 1.8t
    KCM170KX130Savannah3.43 × 10121.45 × 1091.54 × 1075.59 × 104
    Kenya Oct 2013 2.9tKenya Oct 2013 2.0t
    KKP147UWA.A.040Savannah4.61 × 10106.23 × 1078.83 × 1051.29 × 104
    Kenya Jun 2013 1.5tUganda Dec 2013 1.4t
    KKP323UWA.B.100Savannah2.56 × 10134.42 × 1092.46 × 1071.43 × 105
    Kenya Jun 2013 1.5tUganda Dec 2013 1.4t
    KMN004SL324Savannah1.48 × 10132.96 × 1091.86 × 1071.16 × 105
    Kenya Dec 2011 1.5tSri Lanka May 2012 1.5t
    MYS0012TOGI030Savannah1.20 × 10148.30 × 1093.80 × 1071.34 × 105
    Malaysia Dec 2012 6.0tTogo Jan 2014 3.9t
    MYS0062TOGI176Savannah1.25 × 1088.39 × 1054.37 × 1041.34 × 103
    Malaysia Dec 2012 6.0tTogo Jan 2014 3.9t
    MYS1119SL129Savannah2.76 × 10162.28 × 10114.49 × 1084.87 × 105
    Malaysia Dec 2012 6.0tSri Lanka May 2012 1.5t
    G04KKP021Forest3.25 × 10156.98 × 1099.74 × 1068.89 × 101
    Garamba incidentKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    G04KKP123Forest3.25 × 10156.98 × 1099.74 × 1068.89 × 101
    Garamba incidentKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    G05KKP020Forest2.05 × 10202.32 × 10142.19 × 10115.71 × 106
    Garamba incidentKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    G09KKP140Hybrid1.70 × 10194.17 × 10135.33 × 10103.20 × 106
    Garamba incidentKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    G15KKP118Forest8.46 × 10171.02 × 10132.43 × 10101.48 × 106
    Garamba incidentKenya Jun 2013 1.5t
    MYS0648TG59Forest2.33 × 10172.87 × 10128.71 × 1097.37 × 105
    Malaysia Dec 2012 6.0tAug 2013 0.7t

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/9/eaat0625/DC1

    Table S1A. Western forest elephant reference locations.

    Table S1B. Central forest elephant reference locations.

    Table S1C. Southern savannah elephant reference locations.

    Table S1D. Eastern savannah elephant reference locations.

    Table S1E. Northern savannah elephant reference locations.

    Table S2A. Seizures 2002–2012.

    Table S2B. Seizures 2013–2016.

    Table S3A. Matching pairs of savannah elephant samples.

    Table S3B. Matching pairs of forest and hybrid elephant samples.

    Table S4. Dropout model parameters.

    Table S5. Estimated total number of matching samples (Mij) for each seizure pair.

    Fig. S1. Population-specific FST estimates for forest elephants.

    Fig. S2. Population-specific FST estimates for savannah elephants.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Table S1A. Western forest elephant reference locations.
    • Table S1B. Central forest elephant reference locations.
    • Table S1C. Southern savannah elephant reference locations.
    • Table S1D. Eastern savannah elephant reference locations.
    • Table S1E. Northern savannah elephant reference locations.
    • Table S2A. Seizures 2002–2012.
    • Table S2B. Seizures 2013–2016.
    • Table S3A. Matching pairs of savannah elephant samples.
    • Table S3B. Matching pairs of forest and hybrid elephant samples.
    • Table S4. Dropout model parameters.
    • Table S5. Estimated total number of matching samples (Mij) for each seizure pair.
    • Fig. S1. Population-specific FST estimates for forest elephants.
    • Fig. S2. Population-specific FST estimates for savannah elephants.

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    Files in this Data Supplement:

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