Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Middle-Late Triassic insect radiation revealed by diverse fossils and isotopic ages from China

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Science Advances  05 Sep 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 9, eaat1380
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat1380
  • Fig. 1 Geology of Tongchuan and Karamay entomofaunas.

    Geological map showing the location of entomofauna in Karamay City in (A) Xinjiang and (B) Tongchuan City in Shaanxi, Northwest China. (C and D) Stratigraphic column showing lithologies, sample points, and age results. Global paleogeographic reconstructions [Carnian; after Rasnitsyn and Quicke (33) and Golonka (62)], highlighting main coeval insect–bearing localities (E): (1) Tongchuan, China (Ladinian); (2) Karamay, China (Carnian); (3) Madygen, Kyrgyzstan (Ladinian-Carnian); (4) Vosges, France (early Anisian); (5) Solite, USA (late Carnian); (6) Ipswich, Australia (Carnian); (7) Brookvale, Australia (Anisian); and (8) Molteno, South Africa (Carnian).

  • Fig. 2 U-Pb geochronology for samples from layers bearing Tongchuan entomofauna.

    U-Pb concordia plots for zircons in youngest ages (left) and frequency histograms (right) of detrital age populations from sample TC-01 (A and B) and sample TC-02 (C and D). Black arrows showing rank order plots (green bars represent youngest ages). Select cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircons are in frequency histograms (age, 237 Ma ago; red circle diameter, 40 μm).

  • Fig. 3 Representative fossils from Tongchuan and Karamay entomofaunas.

    Tongchuan entomofauna (A to C, E to J, and L to O), and Karamay entomofauna (D and K). (A) Zygophlebia (Odonatoptera: Zygophlebiidae), NIGP163160; (B) Locustavidae (Orthoptera), NIGP162042; (C) Prochoristella (Mecoptera: Permochoristidae), NIGP162043; (D) Corixidae, NIGP162044; (E) Boreocixius (Hemiptera: Surijokocixiidae), NIGP162045; (F) Dunstaniidae (Hemiptera), NIGP162046; (G) Aphidoidea (Hemiptera), NIGP162047; (H) Chauliodites (Grylloblattida: Chaulioditidae), NIGP162048; (I) Cicadocorinae (Hemiptera: Progonocimicidae), NIGP162049; (J) Ichnogenus Folindusia (Trichoptera), NIGP162050; (K) Ichnogenus Terrindusia (Trichoptera), NIGP162051; (L) Myxophaga (Coleoptera), NIGP162052; (M) Elateriformia (Coleoptera), NIGP162053; (N) Dytiscoidea (Coleoptera), NIGP162054; (O) Cicadocorinae (Hemiptera: Progonocimicidae), NIGP162055. Scale bars, 5 mm (white), and 1 mm (black).

  • Fig. 4 Triassic terrestrial biodiversifications.

    (A) Middle Triassic Holometabola radiation and (B) Triassic terrestrial diversifications. The previously earliest records of (1) Corixidae (45), (2) Trichoptera (38), and (3) Lepidoptera (37) are marked by black rectangular bars, and the new records reported in the present study are marked by red rectangular bars. The Triassic terrestrial diversifications are based on the data of holometabola [family richness; (63)], insects [family richness; (14)], plants [generic richness; (9, 64)], plant-arthropod associations [relative richness; (15)], tetrapods [generic richness; (65)], and coal gap (66). I., Induan; Ole., Olenekian; Neo., Neogene.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/9/eaat1380/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Photographs showing outcrops bearing Tongchuan and Karamay entomofaunas.

    Table S1. Insect list of the Tongchuan entomofauna.

    Table S2. U-Pb analytical results for samples from the Tongchuan outcrop.

    References (6780)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Photographs showing outcrops bearing Tongchuan and Karamay entomofaunas.
    • Table S1. Insect list of the Tongchuan entomofauna.
    • Table S2. U-Pb analytical results for samples from the Tongchuan outcrop.
    • References (6780)

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