Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Programmable wettability on photocontrolled graphene film

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Science Advances  14 Sep 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 9, eaat7392
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat7392
  • Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the PIPGF with programmable wettability.

    (A) Tunable wettability of the PIPGF controlled remotely using NIR light. (B) Programmable wettability pathways on the surface of the PIPGF were formed with the integration of NIR masks for controllable droplet manipulation.

  • Fig. 2 Microstructures and wettability of the graphene sponge film and the PIPGF.

    (A to D) SEM images of (A and B) the graphene sponge film and (C and D) the PIPGF. (A) and (C) are the surfaces, and (B) and (D) are the cross sections of the corresponding film. (E) Measured water contact angles of the porous graphene sponge film, the PIPGF with laser switched on, and the PIPGF with laser switched off, respectively. (F) Progress of the water droplet sliding down the surface of the PIPGF with laser switched on; the sliding angle of which is 5°. (G) Progress of the water droplet sliding down the surface of the PIPGF with laser switched off; the sliding angle of which is 87°. (H) Water sliding angle variation of the PIPGF as a function of laser cycle numbers. Scale bars, 10 μm.

  • Fig. 3 Dynamic control of droplet mobility on a tilted PIPGF surface of 20°.

    (A) Progress of a water droplet pinned on the PIPGF at room temperature. (B) Progress of the water droplet sliding down the surface of the PIPGF with NIR switched on. (C) Progress of the droplet pinned on the PIPGF after NIR switched off.

  • Fig. 4 Dynamic control of the droplet mobility on the PIPGF surface guided by designed pathways.

    (A) Oblique pathway, (B) arc pathway, and (C) S-shape pathway, respectively.

  • Fig. 5 Progress of applying the PIPGF for pipetting droplets.

    (A and B) Pipetting droplets into microplates. The same samples were pipetted into different wells in (A), and the different samples were pipetted into different wells in (B). (C) Pipetting droplets to form microarrays on the surfaces of the PIPGF.

  • Fig. 6 PIPGF with programmed wettability pathways as microfluidics.

    (A and B) Dynamic control of the droplet mobility on the PIPGF surface guided by complicated droplet-guiding pathways with (A) Y-patterned and (B) Y-Y–composite channels. (C and D) Schematic diagram (C) and progress (D) of using the PIPGF microreactor for grouping the blood sample (A+) by simply monitoring whether the composite blood droplets slid down or not. The antibodies are anti-D, anti-A, and anti-B from left to right in (C) and (D).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/9/eaat7392/DC1

    Fig. S1. Optical images of the PIPGF.

    Fig. S2. Recorded temperature of the PIPGF with different pathways.

    Fig. S3. Temperature change of the PIPGF during melting and solidification.

    Fig. S4. Melting and solidification times of the PIPGF.

    Fig. S5. Distributing different sample droplets.

    Fig. S6. PIPGF microreactor for grouping the blood samples B+ and O+.

    Table S1. Clotting times and sliding properties of the mixed blood droplets with different volume ratios of blood (A+) to antibody (anti-A).

    Movie S1. Droplet mobility on a tilted PIPGF surface.

    Movie S2. Programmed wettability pathways.

    Movie S3. Manipulating droplet reactions and blood grouping.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Optical images of the PIPGF.
    • Fig. S2. Recorded temperature of the PIPGF with different pathways.
    • Fig. S3. Temperature change of the PIPGF during melting and solidification.
    • Fig. S4. Melting and solidification times of the PIPGF.
    • Fig. S5. Distributing different sample droplets.
    • Fig. S6. PIPGF microreactor for grouping the blood samples B+ and O+.
    • Table S1. Clotting times and sliding properties of the mixed blood droplets with different volume ratios of blood (A+) to antibody (anti-A).
    • Legends for movies S1 to S3

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.avi format). Droplet mobility on a tilted PIPGF surface.
    • Movie S2 (.avi format). Programmed wettability pathways.
    • Movie S3 (.avi format). Manipulating droplet reactions and blood grouping.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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