Research ArticleGENETICS

Mitochondria-encoded genes contribute to evolution of heat and cold tolerance in yeast

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Science Advances  30 Jan 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 1, eaav1848
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1848
  • Fig. 1 A noncomplementation screen identified genes underlying phenotypic divergence between S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum.

    (A) S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum differ in heat (37°C), copper (0.5 mM, 22°C), and ethanol (10%, 30°C) tolerance. The resistant S. cerevisiae alleles are dominant, shown by the hybrid (S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum), compared to S. cerevisiae (diploid, S288C background) and S. uvarum (diploid, CBS7001 background). Growth is after 3 days. (B) S. cerevisiae haploid deletion collection was crossed to S. uvarum to construct an interspecies hemizygote collection. The number of noncomplementing genes is shown for each phenotype; the asterisk indicates that the number includes strains carrying S. uvarum mtDNA. (C) HFA1 hemizygote with only an S. cerevisiae allele (sc/−) shows better 37°C growth than one with only an S. uvarum allele (−/su). Growth is after 5 days. See fig. S1B for quantification. NA, not available.

  • Fig. 2 Mitochondria-encoded genes affect heat and cold tolerance.

    (A) Hybrids with S. cerevisiae (sc) and S. uvarum (su) mtDNA differ in high- and low-temperature growth. Growth is after 5 days (22° and 37°C) or 124 days (4°C). (B) Recombinant strains (rows) derived from mutant crosses (left) are clustered by genotype (middle). Wild-type S. cerevisiae (wt_sc) and S. uvarum (wt_su) mitotypes are at the bottom and top, respectively. Allele identity is shown for 12,574 orthologous single-nucleotide markers (sc and sc-90, S. cerevisiae; su and su-90, S. uvarum; mixed, heterozygous or chimeric; white, no data) in the S. cerevisiae gene order (bottom). Right: 37°C growth is the average size of nonpetite colonies on glycerol plates. Far right: The presence of 4°C glycerol growth is indicated by solid squares. (C) Effect size of S. cerevisiae alleles on 37°C growth on glycerol, with error bars representing 95% confidence intervals. The y axis is scaled to the phenotype of wild-type S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae mitotype (horizontal lines). Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are labeled by their single-letter amino acid code and a black bar. Blue dashed lines indicate genome positions of S. uvarum genes compared to S. cerevisiae.

  • Fig. 3 COX1 coding alleles affect growth at high and low temperature.

    Hybrids carrying allele replacements and two wild-type controls were plated with 1:10 serial dilution and incubated at indicated temperatures. Growth is after 4 days for 25°C and 37°C, 25 days for 4°C on glucose, and 53 days for 4°C on glycerol. sc, S. cerevisiae; su, S. uvarum; mt, mtDNA. Alleles in the brackets were integrated into their endogenous position in S. cerevisiae mtDNA.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/1/eaav1848/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Reciprocal hemizygosity test of HFA1 and CUP2.

    Fig. S2. Fermentative and respiratory growth of interspecific hybrids with reciprocal mitotypes at different temperatures.

    Fig. S3. Rescue of S. cerevisiae (sc) mitochondrial knockouts by recombination with S. uvarum (su) mitotypes.

    Fig. S4. Recombinant genotypes and examples of recombination breakpoints.

    Fig. S5. High petite rate of S. uvarum mitotype and its association with ORF1.

    Fig. S6. Procedure for mitochondrial allele replacement.

    Fig. S7. Background-dependent allele effects of COX1.

    Table S1. Aneuploidy in the recombinants.

    Table S2. Strains used in this study.

    Data file S1. Results of noncomplementation screen.

    Data file S2. Recombinant strain genotypes and phenotypes.

    References (5965)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Reciprocal hemizygosity test of HFA1 and CUP2.
    • Fig. S2. Fermentative and respiratory growth of interspecific hybrids with reciprocal mitotypes at different temperatures.
    • Fig. S3. Rescue of S. cerevisiae (sc) mitochondrial knockouts by recombination with S. uvarum (su) mitotypes.
    • Fig. S4. Recombinant genotypes and examples of recombination breakpoints.
    • Fig. S5. High petite rate of S. uvarum mitotype and its association with ORF1.
    • Fig. S6. Procedure for mitochondrial allele replacement.
    • Fig. S7. Background-dependent allele effects of COX1.
    • Table S1. Aneuploidy in the recombinants.
    • Legend for table S2
    • Legends for data files S1 and S2
    • References (5965)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Strains used in this study.
    • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Results of noncomplementation screen.
    • Data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Recombinant strain genotypes and phenotypes.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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