Research ArticleGENETICS

Mitochondrial DNA and temperature tolerance in lager yeasts

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Science Advances  30 Jan 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 1, eaav1869
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1869
  • Fig. 1 Relative growth of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus strains.

    Relative growth scores of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus strains carrying their native mtDNA from 4° to 37°C combined from all tests on (A) glucose and (B) glycerol. Strains are Sc, ScAle, Se, and SeNC. Error bars represent SEs. Parents were not tested for significant differences.

  • Fig. 2 Mitotype affects temperature tolerance in synthetic lager hybrids.

    (A) Outline of the procedure to control the mitotype of synthetic S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids. Yeast cells represent nuclear genomes, and inner circles represent mtDNA. Red and blue indicate genetic material of S. cerevisiae origin and of S. eubayanus origin, respectively, and purple indicates hybrid nuclear material. (B) On glucose and (C) glycerol, relative growth scores of S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus synthetic hybrids with alternate mitotypes from 4° to 37°C combined across all experiments (tiny circles and triangles). Each hybrid of each mitotype is represented in the above graphs. Mean data for synthetic hybrids carrying S. eubayanus mtDNA are represented by large blue circles, and mean data for synthetic hybrids with S. cerevisiae mtDNA are represented by large red triangles. Parent strains are Sc, ScAle, Se, and SeNC. Synthetic hybrids are as follows: Sc × Se, ScAle × Se, Sc × SeNC, SeAle × SeNC, ScAle × SeNC, and Sc × SeNC. Hybrids carrying S. cerevisiae mtDNA, for which only single biological replicates of crosses were available, are represented by open tiny triangles. Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative growth between mitotypes are indicated by an asterisk.

  • Fig. 3 S. cerevisiae mtDNA increases the thermotolerance and decreases the cryotolerance of an industrial lager strain.

    (A) Outline of crosses and strain engineering to produce lager cybrids. Yeast cells, large inner circles, and small green inner circles represent the nuclear genome, the mtDNA, and the HyPr plasmid (50), respectively. Lowercase “a” and “α” indicate mating types. Karyogamy-deficient (kar1-1) strains can be of either mating type and are mated to the opposite mating type. Black, red, purple, and blue indicate genetic material from the S. cerevisiae kar1-1 strain, from a S. cerevisiae parent, a hybrid (i.e., lager) nuclear genome, and mtDNA of S. eubayanus origin, respectively. (B) On glucose and (C) glycerol, growth of a lager strain with native mtDNA (inherited from S. eubayanus lager parent) and lager cybrids with S. cerevisiae mtDNA. Error bars represent SEs, and asterisks indicate statistically significant differences in growth between the cybrid and the lager with native mtDNA (P ≤ 0.05).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/1/eaav1869/DC1

    Fig. S1. Growth assay for ScAle × SeNC hybrids and parental strains.

    Fig. S2. Growth assay for Sc × SeNC hybrids and parental strains.

    Fig. S3. Growth assay for Sc × Se hybrids and parental strains.

    Fig. S4. Growth assay for ScAle × Se strain hybrids and parental strains.

    Fig. S5. Relative growth scores and box plots of ρ0 biological replicates.

    Fig. S6. Approximation of Arrhenius growth plots for synthetic hybrid growth assays.

    Fig. S7. Analysis of synthetic hybrid relative growth scores using restricted dataset.

    Fig. S8. Growth assay for lager cybrids and parental strains.

    Fig. S9. Approximation of Arrhenius growth plots for lager cybrid growth assays.

    Table S1. Strains, plasmid, and oligonucleotides used in this work.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Growth assay for ScAle × SeNC hybrids and parental strains.
    • Fig. S2. Growth assay for Sc × SeNC hybrids and parental strains.
    • Fig. S3. Growth assay for Sc × Se hybrids and parental strains.
    • Fig. S4. Growth assay for ScAle × Se strain hybrids and parental strains.
    • Fig. S5. Relative growth scores and box plots of ρ0 biological replicates.
    • Fig. S6. Approximation of Arrhenius growth plots for synthetic hybrid growth assays.
    • Fig. S7. Analysis of synthetic hybrid relative growth scores using restricted dataset.
    • Fig. S8. Growth assay for lager cybrids and parental strains.
    • Fig. S9. Approximation of Arrhenius growth plots for lager cybrid growth assays.
    • Legend for table S1

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Strains, plasmid, and oligonucleotides used in this work.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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