Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Ancient Greek text concealed on the back of unrolled papyrus revealed through shortwave-infrared hyperspectral imaging

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Science Advances  04 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaav8936
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav8936
  • Fig. 1 HSI ink visualization data.

    Representative reflectance spectra (2 × 2 pixels) of the papyrus and the two inks (recto and verso) extracted from the SWIR HSI data cube (A) and the representative loading plots of PC3 (B) and PC1 (C) calculated from it.

  • Fig. 2 PC3 SWIR hyperspectral images of PHerc. 1021.

    By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche). Cornice 1 (A) and cornice 2 (B). Red lines highlight text columns lying on the verso; cyan ellipses mark textual portions belonging to them.

  • Fig. 3 PHerc. 1021, cornice 1, recto cols. 5-6, intercolumnium.

    Image at 950 nm (no text visible from the verso). By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Steven W. Booras, Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Brigham Young University, Provo) (A). PC3 SWIR hyperspectral image showing text from the verso (B) and detail of the same (C). The same text mirrored. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) (D). The corresponding text in Oxonian drawing V (E). Full picture of Oxonian drawing V (photo credit: The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, MS. Gr. Class. c. 4, 4, fol. 726) (F).

  • Fig. 4 PHerc. 1021, cornice 4, general view.

    Image at 950 nm. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Steven W. Booras, Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Brigham Young University, Provo) (A) and PC1 SWIR hyperspectral image. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) (B).

  • Fig. 5 PHerc. 1021, cornice 4, col. 19, 38 Fleischer (end of line).

    Image at 950 nm. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Steven W. Booras, Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Brigham Young University, Provo) (A) and PC1 SWIR hyperspectral image. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (B).

  • Fig. 6 PHerc. 1021, cornice 2, cols. 5-6, lower marginal annotation.

    Image at 950 nm. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Steven W. Booras, Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Brigham Young University, Provo) (A) and SWIR hyperspectral images obtained through PC1 (B) and PC3. By permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (photo credit: Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III,” Napoli—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) (C).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/10/eaav8936/DC1

    Fig. S1. Photographic reproduction of PHerc. 1021, cornice 4.

    Fig. S2. Oxonian drawings of PHerc. 1021, verso cols. Z, Y, X, V, and T.

    Fig. S3. Oxonian drawings of PHerc. 1021, verso cols. Z, Y, and X.

    Fig. S4. PHerc. 1021, verso col. T: Oxonian drawing.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Photographic reproduction of PHerc. 1021, cornice 4.
    • Fig. S2. Oxonian drawings of PHerc. 1021, verso cols. Z, Y, X, V, and T.
    • Fig. S3. Oxonian drawings of PHerc. 1021, verso cols. Z, Y, and X.
    • Fig. S4. PHerc. 1021, verso col. T: Oxonian drawing.

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