ReviewSOCIAL SCIENCES

The science of contemporary street protest: New efforts in the United States

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Science Advances  23 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaaw5461
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw5461

Figures

  • Fig. 1 Cartogram depicting protest activity by state.

    States sized according to their population. Each state is colored based on the number of protest participants per capita; darker color indicates higher number of protesters per resident. Washington, DC, is an outlier: It has 1898 attendees per thousand residents. Based on data collected by Count Love from 20 January 2017 to 18 December 2018.

  • Fig. 2 Number of protest attendees by month from January 2017 to October 2018 based on data collected by the CCC.

    Light and dark bars depict the low and high attendee estimates, respectively, highlighting discrepancies in reporting.

  • Fig. 3 Map of Women’s March events occurring in the continental United States in 2017 from the CCC data, with circles sized according to the high estimate of attendees.

    Protests had an average of 8300 attendees, with the largest occurring in Washington, DC (up to 1 million attendees).

  • Fig. 4 Map of Women’s March events occurring in the continental United States in 2018 from the CCC data, with circles sized according to the high estimate of attendees.

    Protests had an average of 6900 attendees, with the largest occurring in Los Angeles, CA (up to 600,000 attendees).

Tables

  • Table 1 Demographic data collected by surveying a sampling of attendees (N = 1936) at protests taking place in Washington, DC, associated with the Resistance.

    Data were collected by Fisher and published in (81).

    20172018
    Women’s MarchMarch for
    Science
    People’s
    Climate March
    March for Racial
    Justice
    Women’s MarchMarch for Our
    Lives
    Families Belong
    Together
    Gender
    Female85%54%57%66%78%70%71%
    Male14%42%41%32%17%29%27%
    Other1%4%2%2%2%2%2%
    Race/ethnicity
    White77%80%77%62%77%78%70%
    Latinx4%4%6%7%3%5%9%
    Black7%1%3%18%9%8%7%
    Asian/Pacific
    Islander
    4%5%6%6%7%3%5%
    Multiracial/other8%10%6%7%5%6%8%
    Age
    Average adult age43414238434945
    Education
    Less than
    bachelor’s degree
    13%18%23%30%25%28%16%
    Bachelor’s degree34%35%35%30%36%36%28%
    Graduate degree53%47%42%40%38%36%56%
  • Table 2 Political attitudes by conservative versus liberal protesters in the United States.

    Surveys collected by Heaney at 16 protest events in Washington, DC (N = 3222) are shown. Data are weighted to account for response rate differences based on race/ethnicity and sex/gender.

    Conservative event (Likert score)Liberal event (Likert score)Difference of means test (t score)
    Efficacy of the American political system
    The American political system is
    generally effective in solving public
    problems.
    2.972.518.40*
    Elections are an effective way for
    citizens to hold their leaders
    accountable for the decisions that
    they make in office.
    4.273.928.00*
    Attitudes toward the party system
    Conversing about politics with people
    who hold different partisan loyalties
    than me is generally very valuable.
    4.003.970.57
    American democracy would be
    stronger if third parties played a
    greater role in the system.
    3.373.9310.03*
    Opinions on protest tactics
    Civility by the participants in protest is
    necessary in order for protest to
    influence the actions of policy-makers.
    4.434.156.36*
    Property damage and/or violence are
    sometimes necessary for protest to
    influence the actions of policy-makers.
    1.362.0714.31*
    Personal political efficacy
    Public officials do not care much
    about what people like me think.
    3.403.360.79
    Sometimes, politics and government
    seem so complicated that a person
    like me cannot really understand what
    is going on.
    2.622.560.94
    Race and gender
    In general, African Americans are more
    likely to be treated unfairly in the
    workplace compared with White
    Americans.
    2.654.4933.85*
    In general, women are more likely to
    be treated unfairly in the workplace
    compared with men.
    2.674.5231.59*

    *P ≤ 0.001.

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