Research ArticleBIOCHEMISTRY

Antiviral activity of a purine synthesis enzyme reveals a key role of deamidation in regulating protein nuclear import

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Science Advances  09 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaaw7373
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7373

Abstract

Protein nuclear translocation is highly regulated and crucial for diverse biological processes. However, our understanding concerning protein nuclear import is incomplete. Here we report that a cellular purine synthesis enzyme inhibits protein nuclear import via deamidation. Employing human Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) to probe the role of protein deamidation, we identified a purine synthesis enzyme, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (PFAS) that inhibits KSHV transcriptional activation. PFAS deamidates the replication transactivator (RTA), a transcription factor crucial for KSHV lytic replication. Mechanistically, deamidation of two asparagines flanking a positively charged nuclear localization signal impaired the binding of RTA to an importin β subunit, thus diminishing RTA nuclear localization and transcriptional activation. Finally, RTA proteins of all gamma herpesviruses appear to be regulated by PFAS-mediated deamidation. These findings uncover an unexpected function of a metabolic enzyme in restricting viral replication and a key role of deamidation in regulating protein nuclear import.

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