Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Earliest occupation of the Central Aegean (Naxos), Greece: Implications for hominin and Homo sapiens’ behavior and dispersals

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Science Advances  16 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaax0997
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax0997
  • Fig. 1 Location of Stelida archaeological site and hypothesized hominin dispersal routes during Marine Isotope Stage 8.

    1, Stelida; 2, Rodafnidia; 3, Karaburun; and 4, Plakias. Base map modified from Lykousis 2009 (22). Figure by J.H.

  • Fig. 2 Geoarchaeological framework and stratigraphic interpretation of the Stelida hillslope and excavation unit DG-A/001.

    (A) Generalized plan view of key geomorphic units observed on Stelida hillslope and location of Unit DG-A/001 [base map modified from (24)]. (B) Generalized profile of cross-section a-a′ illustrating the upper half of the Stelida hillslope. (C) Stratigraphic profile, geoarchaeological interpretation, and geochronology of unit DG-A/001 with dates expressed as 68% confidence intervals. Figure by J.H. and P.K.

  • Fig. 3 Select artifacts from LU5 to LU7.

    Flakes unless otherwise noted. a, scraper; b, backed flake; c, bladelet; d, piercer; e, piercer on blade-like flake; f, piercer; g, combined tool (burin and scraper on chunk); h, nosed scraper; i, combined tool (inverse scraper/denticulate/notch); j, denticulate (LU5); k, flake; l, denticulated blade-like flake (LU7); m, piercer; n, denticulate; o, denticulate; p, piercer; q, combined tool (linear retouch/denticulate); r, scraper; s, convergent denticulate (Tayac point); t, blade; u, scraper; v, denticulate; w, linear retouch; x, tranchet; and y, blade-like flake (LU6). Photographed by J. Lau and modified and page set by N. Thompson.

  • Table 1 Quantity of lithic artifacts per LU.

    LUCountWeight (kg)Average gram per
    lithic
    Estimated excavated
    volume (m3)*
    Density of lithics
    (pieces/m3)
    LU146074910.60.974739
    LU2135324.718.23.86350
    LU3238736.515.30.376403
    LU4272350.118.40.823317
    LU5230394.741.10.2310,153
    LU654822.140.30.134208
    LU71045.351.00.081361
    LU8000.00.500

    *Does not account for varying proportions of sediment:rock in each LU.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/10/eaax0997/DC1

      Supplementary Materials and Methods

      Supplementary Text

      Fig. S1. Geomorphic context of excavation unit DG-A/001.

      Fig. S2. Select Upper Paleolithic diagnostic artifacts from LU3 to LU5.

      Fig. S3. Select Upper and Middle Paleolithic diagnostic artifacts from LU2 to LU5.

      Fig. S4. Lower Paleolithic biface (LU4b).

      Fig. S5. plRIR290 typical shine-down curve and dose response curve for sample SNPA17-04.

      Fig. S6. Residual dose measurements as a function of time, after 15 min to 48 hours of lightexposition in a solar simulator, for samples SNAP16-02 and SNAP17-04.

      Fig. S7. Radial plots of the pIR-IR290 measurements for SNAP16-01, SNAP16-02, SNAP16-03, SNAP16-04, SNAP17-04, and SNAP17-05.

      Fig. S8. Output of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations for the pIRIR290 agepalaeodose, and dispersion of equivalent doses of sample SNAP16-4, as generated by the R ‘BayLum’ package.

      Fig. S9. Bivariate scatterplot of a sample of observations from the joint posterior distribution of the IRSL ages generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, using the “BayLum” R package.

      Table S1. Main characteristics of the pIRIR290 ages measurements for the DG-A/001 stratigraphic sequence.

      Table S2. Main characteristics of the IR50 age measurements.

      Table S3. Radioelements contents determined by high-resolution gamma spectrometry.

      Table S4. IR50 and pIRIR290 dose-rate information.

      References (7599)

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Supplementary Materials and Methods
      • Supplementary Text
      • Fig. S1. Geomorphic context of excavation unit DG-A/001.
      • Fig. S2. Select Upper Paleolithic diagnostic artifacts from LU3 to LU5.
      • Fig. S3. Select Upper and Middle Paleolithic diagnostic artifacts from LU2 to LU5.
      • Fig. S4. Lower Paleolithic biface (LU4b).
      • Fig. S5. plRIR290 typical shine-down curve and dose response curve for sample SNPA17-04.
      • Fig. S6. Residual dose measurements as a function of time, after 15 min to 48 hours of light exposition in a solar simulator, for samples SNAP16-02 and SNAP17-04.
      • Fig. S7. Radial plots of the pIR-IR290 measurements for SNAP16-01, SNAP16-02, SNAP16-03, SNAP16-04, SNAP17-04, and SNAP17-05.
      • Fig. S8. Output of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations for the pIRIR290 age palaeodose, and dispersion of equivalent doses of sample SNAP16-4, as generated by the R ‘BayLum’ package.
      • Fig. S9. Bivariate scatterplot of a sample of observations from the joint posterior distribution of the IRSL ages generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, using the “BayLum” R package.
      • Table S1. Main characteristics of the pIRIR290 ages measurements for the DG-A/001 stratigraphic sequence.
      • Table S2. Main characteristics of the IR50 age measurements.
      • Table S3. Radioelements contents determined by high-resolution gamma spectrometry.
      • Table S4. IR50 and pIRIR290 dose-rate information.
      • References (7599)

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