Research ArticleSIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

Resolution metabolomes activated by hypoxic environment

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  23 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaax4895
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax4895

Abstract

Targeting hypoxia-sensitive pathways in immune cells is of interest in treating diseases. Here, we demonstrate that physiologic hypoxia (1% O2), as encountered in bone marrow and spleen, accelerates human M2 macrophage efferocytosis of apoptotic-neutrophils and senescent erythrocytes via lipolysis-dependent biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), i.e. resolvins, protectins, maresins and lipoxin. SPM-production was enhanced via hypoxia in M2 macrophages interacting with neutrophils and erythrocytes enabling structural elucidation of a novel eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)–derived resolvin, resolvin E4 (RvE4) that stimulates efferocytosis of senescent erythrocytes and more potently than aspirin in mouse hemorrhagic exudates. In hypoxia, glycolysis inhibition enhanced neutrophil RvE4-SPM biosynthesis. Human macrophage-erythrocyte co-incubations in physiologic hypoxia produced RvE4-SPM from erythrocyte stores of omega-3 fatty acids. These results indicate that hypoxic environments, including bone marrow and spleen as well as sites of inflammation, activate SPM-biosynthetic circuits that in turn stimulate resolution and clearance of senescent erythrocytes and apoptotic neutrophils.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

View Full Text

Stay Connected to Science Advances