Research ArticleSTRUCTURAL BIOLOGY

Cryo–electron microscopy structure and analysis of the P-Rex1–Gβγ signaling scaffold

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Science Advances  16 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaax8855
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax8855

Abstract

PIP3-dependent Rac exchanger 1 (P-Rex1) is activated downstream of G protein–coupled receptors to promote neutrophil migration and metastasis. The structure of more than half of the enzyme and its regulatory G protein binding site are unknown. Our 3.2 Å cryo-EM structure of the P-Rex1–Gβγ complex reveals that the carboxyl-terminal half of P-Rex1 adopts a complex fold most similar to those of Legionella phosphoinositide phosphatases. Although catalytically inert, the domain coalesces with a DEP domain and two PDZ domains to form an extensive docking site for Gβγ. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry suggests that Gβγ binding induces allosteric changes in P-Rex1, but functional assays indicate that membrane localization is also required for full activation. Thus, a multidomain assembly is key to the regulation of P-Rex1 by Gβγ and the formation of a membrane-localized scaffold optimized for recruitment of other signaling proteins such as PKA and PTEN.

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