Research ArticleECOLOGY

Variable effects of local management on coral defenses against a thermally regulated bleaching pathogen

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Science Advances  02 Oct 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 10, eaay1048
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay1048
  • Fig. 1 Effects of coral water on Vibrio coralliilyticus.

    Mean (±SE) activity of coral water relative to reef water against V. coralliilyticus (quantified by metabolism of tetrazolium chloride) at 24° and 28°C for P. cylindrica (A and B), A. millepora (C and D), and P. damicornis (E and F). The dashed line at 1.0 is the expected value if there is no effect. Values below this line indicate suppression of V. coralliilyticus metabolism, and values above the line indicate enhancement. P values are from linear mixed-effects models implemented with Akaike information criterion for model selection (n = 9). Factors remaining for each species’ model after the model selection process are provided. O, T, and C represent origin (MPAs or fished areas), temperature, and concentration of pathogen inoculum, respectively. Dots indicate individual data points. One data point with negative values (after reduction of the optical density of sterilized coral water; see Methods for information on data processing) is not depicted in each of (C) (data point value is −0.040) and in (D) (data point value is −0.078) for the 10 cells/ml concentration of MPA samples. TTC, tetrazolium chloride.

  • Fig. 2 Principal coordinate analysis plots with PERMANOVA and PERMDISPERSION tests of microbial community composition and dispersion on operational taxonomic unit tables rarefied to a uniform sequencing depth of 7700 sequences per sample.

    (A) P. cylindrica (n = 28, 30 for MPA and fished-area coral). (B) A. millepora (n = 29, 28 for MPA and fished-area coral). (C) P. damicornis (n = 26, 23 for MPA and fished-area coral). Abbreviations O and V represent factors origin (MPA or fished area) and village, respectively. PCO, principal coordinate analysis.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/10/eaay1048/DC1

    Fig. S1. Anti-pathogen activity of coral water from Acropora millepora.

    Fig. S2. Average microbial community composition from data rarefied to 7700 sequences per sample for A. millepora (n = 29, 28 MPA and fished-area coral), P. damicornis (n = 26, 23 MPA and fished-area coral), and P. cylindrica (n = 28, 30 for MPA and fished-area coral).

    Fig. S3. Alpha diversity of corals from MPAs and fished areas.

    Fig. S4. Principal coordinate analysis with PERMANOVA and PERMDISPERSION tests of microbial community composition and dispersion for benthic water samples on OTU tables rarefied to a uniform sequencing depth of 17,700 sequences per sample (n = 27, 18 for MPA and fished-area samples).

    Fig. S5. OTU richness and diversity of benthic water from each reef site.

    Fig. S6. Map of MPAs (in red) and fished areas (in blue) used in collection of coral and water samples along the coral coast of Viti Levu, Fiji.

    Fig. S7. OTU rarefaction curves for each coral and for benthic water from each reef site.

    Table S1. Statistical contrast values for data shown in Fig. 1 and fig. S1.

    Table S2. PERMANOVA and PERMDISPERSION results for coral microbial community composition and dispersion.

    Table S3. Coral microbial community composition.

    Table S4. Relative abundance and analyses of Vibrionaceae for each coral species and site.

    Table S5. Diversity of Vibrionaceae.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Anti-pathogen activity of coral water from Acropora millepora.
    • Fig. S2. Average microbial community composition from data rarefied to 7700 sequences per sample for A. millepora (n = 29, 28 MPA and fished-area coral), P. damicornis (n = 26, 23 MPA and fished-area coral), and P. cylindrica (n = 28, 30 for MPA and fished-area coral).
    • Fig. S3. Alpha diversity of corals from MPAs and fished areas.
    • Fig. S4. Principal coordinate analysis with PERMANOVA and PERMDISPERSION tests of microbial community composition and dispersion for benthic water samples on OTU tables rarefied to a uniform sequencing depth of 17,700 sequences per sample (n = 27, 18 for MPA and fished-area samples).
    • Fig. S5. OTU richness and diversity of benthic water from each reef site.
    • Fig. S6. Map of MPAs (in red) and fished areas (in blue) used in collection of coral and water samples along the coral coast of Viti Levu, Fiji.
    • Fig. S7. OTU rarefaction curves for each coral and for benthic water from each reef site.
    • Table S1. Statistical contrast values for data shown in Fig. 1 and fig. S1.
    • Table S2. PERMANOVA and PERMDISPERSION results for coral microbial community composition and dispersion.
    • Table S3. Coral microbial community composition.
    • Table S4. Relative abundance and analyses of Vibrionaceae for each coral species and site.
    • Table S5. Diversity of Vibrionaceae.

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