Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Fast surface dynamics enabled cold joining of metallic glasses

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Science Advances  22 Nov 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 11, eaax7256
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax7256
  • Fig. 1 Activation energy of metallic glass surface through MD simulations.

    (A) Activation energy map obtained by MD simulation. (B) Distribution of the activation energies at different distances away from the surface.

  • Fig. 2 Dynamic mechanical properties measured on the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass surfaces.

    (A) and (B) show the viscoelastic loss tangent map at f = 200 and 70,000 Hz. (C) is the statistical analysis of (A) and (B), which is well fitted by Gaussian distribution. (D) is the viscosity (or relaxation time) distribution normalized by the value at the peak position of f = 200 Hz.

  • Fig. 3 Fast bonding on Zr-based metallic glass surfaces created by ultrasonic vibration.

    (A) Schematic diagram to fabricate the BMG by ultrasonic vibrations. (B) Displacement of the sonotrode during the constant vibration. (C) Magnification of (B). (D) Photograph of the ribbon feedstock. (E) Photograph of the bulk Zr-based rod (diameter, 5 mm; height, 3 mm) fabricated from the ribbon feedstock. (F) Density comparison between as-cast and ultrasonically bonded BMGs of different systems. (G) Hardness comparison between as-cast and ultrasonically bonded BMGs of different systems. Photo credit: Jiang Ma, Shenzhen University.

  • Fig. 4 Fabrication of the BMGs with multiphase.

    (A and B) Schematic diagram to synthesize single- and multiphase BMGs by ultrasonic vibrations from the ribbon feedstocks. (C and D) XRD patterns of the single- and multiphase BMGs, indicating their amorphous nature. (E) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the La-based and Pd-based dual BMGs. (F) HRTEM image of the dual-phase BMG, showing distinct amorphous structures of two different phases. (G) Diffraction patterns of selected regions R1, R2, and R3. Regions R2 and R3 have the same scale bars, as shown in region R1. (H) Element distribution of the dual-phase BMG by EDS analysis. The TEM images shares the scale bar with the other EDS maps. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 5 Contour plot of the calculated temperature increase for different attempt frequencies and activation energies.

  • Fig. 6 MD simulation results.

    (A) Calculated strain-stress curves of samples I and II, which are prepared by two different treatment methods (see Materials and Methods for more details). The data (dashed line) of the as-prepared bulk sample are listed for reference. (B) and (C) are the snapshots of samples I and II colored by nonaffine displacement Dj at yielding point [as marked in (A)]. (D) Calculated MSD 〈r2(t)〉 of the interface region and the bulk region. (E) The probability density p(rΔt) distributions of atomic displacements rt = 104 ps) of the interface region and the bulk region of sample II.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/11/eaax7256/DC1

    Fig. S1. Evolution of activation energy with the distance away from surface.

    Fig. S2. Topology of the metallic glass thin films, which corresponds to the regions in Fig. 3 (A and B).

    Fig. S3. Top views of the three metallic glass ribbons and the corresponding BMGs fabricated by the ultrasonic vibration method.

    Fig. S4. The top views of the samples with dual phases of Zr-Pd BMG, Pd-La BMG, and even the ternary Zr-Pd-La BMG with a diameter of 5 mm.

    Fig. S5. The HRTEM image of the Pd-based and Zr-based dual-phase BMG and the corresponding element distribution.

    Fig. S6. The optical image of the Pd-, Zr-, and La-based multiphase BMG and the corresponding element distribution.

    Fig. S7. The characterization of La-based and Pd-based dual-phase BMG interface.

    Fig. S8. Sample model preparation for MD simulations.

    Fig. S9. Mechanical training on sample O.

    Fig. S10. Nonaffine displacement of each atom after applying the uniaxial tension.

    Movie S1. The cold forming of amorphous ribbons under ultrasonic vibrations.

    Movie S2. The response of crystallized ribbons under high frequency vibrations.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDFset includes:

    • Fig. S1. Evolution of activation energy with the distance away from surface.
    • Fig. S2. Topology of the metallic glass thin films, which corresponds to the regions in Fig. 3 (A and B).
    • Fig. S3. Top views of the three metallic glass ribbons and the corresponding BMGs fabricated by the ultrasonic vibration method.
    • Fig. S4. The top views of the samples with dual phases of Zr-Pd BMG, Pd-La BMG, and even the ternary Zr-Pd-La BMG with a diameter of 5 mm.
    • Fig. S5. The HRTEM image of the Pd-based and Zr-based dual-phase BMG and the corresponding element distribution.
    • Fig. S6. The optical image of the Pd-, Zr-, and La-based multiphase BMG and the corresponding element distribution.
    • Fig. S7. The characterization of La-based and Pd-based dual-phase BMG interface.
    • Fig. S8. Sample model preparation for MD simulations.
    • Fig. S9. Mechanical training on sample O.
    • Fig. S10. Nonaffine displacement of each atom after applying the uniaxial tension.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). The cold forming of amorphous ribbons under ultrasonic vibrations.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). The response of crystallized ribbons under high frequency vibrations.

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