Research ArticleAPPLIED PHYSICS

Electrically driven optical interferometry with spins in silicon carbide

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Science Advances  22 Nov 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 11, eaay0527
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay0527
  • Fig. 1 Single kh VVs in commercially available 4H-SiC.

    (A) Lattice configuration of kh VVs in 4H-SiC. The defect axis is indicated by the green dashed line. Inset (left): Local atomic configuration around the kh VV showing C1h symmetry. Inset (right): Emission spectrum of a single kh VV. arb. units, arbitrary units. (B) Energy diagram of the kh VV. The spin sublevels mix due to the effect of transverse zero-field splitting EGS/ES, causing |±1〉 to become |±〉 near-zero external magnetic field. Spin-selective optical transitions (blue, yellow, and red arrows) enable spin-state readout. (C) Optical image of the 4H-SiC sample with a lithographically patterned capacitor and wire. Inset: Scanning confocal image of the marked region between the coplanar capacitor plates using 905-nm excitation. Highlighted emitters are single kh VVs. kcps, kilocounts per second.

  • Fig. 2 Optical properties of single kh VVs.

    (A) PLE spectrum of a single kh VV prepared into |0〉 (blue), |–〉 (yellow), and |+〉 (red) with dc electric field (1 MV/m) applied and spectral diffusion compensated. Optical detuning measured with respect to 277.9337 THz (1078.647 nm). Inset: 0A0 transition exhibiting a narrow, Lorentzian lineshape with spectral diffusion compensated. (B) Optical coherence of kh VVs. Optical Rabi oscillations between 0A0 (blue circles) and +A+ (red circles) at 7.6-μW resonant excitation. Both transitions exhibit near–lifetime-limited optical coherence (T2 ≈ 2 T1). 0A0 exhibits no detectable spin relaxation under illumination in this time scale, whereas excitation of +A+ rapidly depopulates |+〉. Bottom: The pulse envelope created by the acousto-optic modulator used to gate the resonant, narrow-line laser.

  • Fig. 3 LZS interferometry of kh VV absorption spectrum.

    (A) Monochromatic LZS interferometry of kh VV absorption spectrum. Top: Pulse sequence used to observe LZS interferometry. The interference pattern of 0A0 is measured as a function of A, the induced Stark shift amplitude. Bottom: Interference fringes of 0A0 absorption arise in PLE spectroscopy as electric field magnitude |F| is increased (|F∥,max| ≈ 2 MV/m), proportionally increasing A. Total acquisition time was 19.5 hours. (B) Bichromatic LZS interferometry of kh VV absorption spectrum. Top: Pulse sequence used to observe bichromatic LZS interferometry. The interference pattern of 0A0 is measured as a function of the relative phase ϕ of the two drives. Bottom: PLE of a single kh VV under two electric field drives (ω1 = 2π × 1 GHz, ω2 = 2π × 2 GHz, A1/ω1=A2/ω22.4048) as a function of ϕ. Multiphoton resonances arise at 1 × n GHz and 2 × n GHz optical detunings, resulting in fringes from constructive and destructive interference of the two drives. Total acquisition time was 9.1 hours. kcps, kilocounts per second.

  • Fig. 4 Near-ZEFOZ spin control and dynamics of single kh VVs.

    (A) ZEFOZ transitions near zero effective magnetic field. Energy dispersion with respect to Bz shows the vanishing first derivative of the spin transition energies, ν|0〉 ↔ |±〉 and ν|+〉 ↔ |–〉, at Bz,eff = 0. (B) Top: Pulse sequence used to observe Rabi oscillations between |0〉 and |+〉. Bottom: Rabi oscillations of the ground-state spin between |0〉 and |+〉. PL measured from 0A0 excitation. (C) Top: Pulse sequence used to observe Rabi oscillations between |+〉 and |–〉. Bottom: Rabi oscillations of ground-state spin between |+〉 and |–〉. PL measured from A excitation. The nearby 0A0 transition increases background and reduces the contrast of Rabi oscillations. (D) Ramsey interferometry of a spin superposition prepared in ψ0=12(0++). Dephasing mechanisms evolve the initial state ρ(0) = ∣ψ0〉〈ψ0∣ into ρ(t). A MW detuning of +100 kHz is added to increase visibility of the decay envelope. Readout is performed using 0A0 PL. (E) Hahn-echo coherence of ψ0=12(0++). A Gaussian decay envelope suggests the dominant source of spin decoherence is from the fluctuations of the 29Si and 13C nuclear spin bath.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/11/eaay0527/DC1

    Section S1. Single-photon emission properties of kh VVs

    Section S2. Ground- and excited-state spin-spin interactions

    Section S3. Spectral diffusion of optical transitions

    Section S4. dc Stark tuning of kh VVs

    Section S5. Integrated multiphoton resonance lineshape

    Section S6. Electrical properties of on-chip planar capacitor

    Section S7. Ground-state ZEFOZ spin transitions

    Section S8. Nuclear spin bath interactions

    Section S9. Density functional theory calculations of kh VV excited-state structure

    Section S10. Density functional theory calculations of electric field–dependent phenomena

    Fig. S1. Correlation spectroscopy of a single kh VV.

    Fig. S2. Spectral diffusion of a single kh VV.

    Fig. S3. dc Stark shifts of single kh VVs.

    Fig. S4 Photoluminescence of multiphoton resonances.

    Fig. S5. Nonresonant device properties.

    Fig. S6. Pulsed optically detected magnetic resonance of single kh VVs.

    Fig. S7. Cluster-correlation expansion simulations of kh VVs.

    Table 1. Zero-field splitting values for kh VVs.

    Table 2. Calculated electric dipole for the ground state–excited state optical transition for the diamond nitrogen-vacancy center and hh and kh VVs.

    References (3440)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Section S1. Single-photon emission properties of kh VVs
    • Section S2. Ground- and excited-state spin-spin interactions
    • Section S3. Spectral diffusion of optical transitions
    • Section S4. dc Stark tuning of kh VVs
    • Section S5. Integrated multiphoton resonance lineshape
    • Section S6. Electrical properties of on-chip planar capacitor
    • Section S7. Ground-state ZEFOZ spin transitions
    • Section S8. Nuclear spin bath interactions
    • Section S9. Density functional theory calculations of kh VV excited-state structure
    • Section S10. Density functional theory calculations of electric field–dependent phenomena
    • Fig. S1. Correlation spectroscopy of a single kh VV.
    • Fig. S2. Spectral diffusion of a single kh VV.
    • Fig. S3. dc Stark shifts of single kh VVs.
    • Fig. S4 Photoluminescence of multiphoton resonances.
    • Fig. S5. Nonresonant device properties.
    • Fig. S6. Pulsed optically detected magnetic resonance of single kh VVs.
    • Fig. S7. Cluster-correlation expansion simulations of kh VVs.
    • Table 1. Zero-field splitting values for kh VVs.
    • Table 2. Calculated electric dipole for the ground state–excited state optical transition for the diamond nitrogen-vacancy center and hh and kh VVs.
    • References (3440)

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