Research ArticleBIOCHEMISTRY

In vivo changes of nanoapatite crystals during bone reconstruction and the differences with native bone apatite

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  13 Nov 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 11, eaay6484
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay6484
  • Fig. 1 Synthesis and characterization of HA and HA-Tb nanocrystals.

    TEM images of crystal morphologies, with insets showing size distribution (A and D), XRD patterns (B), IR spectra (C), XPS spectra (E), and cell proliferation effects (F) of HA and HA-Tb nanocrystals. (*versus control, ^versus HA for P < 0.05). ICDD, the International Centre for Diffraction Data; a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 2 Micro-CT images of HA-Tb powder in bone tissue.

    After implantation for 1, 3, and 6 months, the overall distribution and degradation change of the implanted HA-Tb material and bone remodeling at the macro level. (A to C) Reconstructed images. (D to F) Scanned single-layer images.

  • Fig. 3 LSCM images of bone tissue and HA-Tb particles.

    LSCM images of bone tissue (A to C), HA-Tb particles with green fluorescence (D to F), and their overlapping images (G to I) after implantation for 1, 3, and 6 months. The images reveal the detailed interrelation between the HA-Tb material and bone tissue, and the distribution and amount change of the implanted HA-Tb material during bone reconstruction at the micro level.

  • Fig. 4 TEM analysis of the HA-Tb nanocrystals in new bone tissue.

    TEM micrographs (A to F) and SAED patterns (G to I) of the implanted HA-Tb nanocrystals in new bone tissue at 1, 3, and 6 months, demonstrating the change in their uniform morphology, crystal size, and crystal structure with implantation time.

  • Fig. 5 TEM analysis of the native apatite in bone tissue.

    TEM micrographs (A to C), SAED patterns [insets in (A) and (B)], and EDX mapping (c1, c2) of the natural bone tissue from the rabbit femoral condyle demonstrating that the native mineralized bone apatite has a diffraction structure with an HA phase but does not show an observable precise or defined shape and size; the size of bone apatite crystals should be in the subnanometer range.

  • Fig. 6 TEM analysis of the degraded HA-Tb particles.

    TEM micrographs (A to C) and corresponding EDX mapping (D to F) of the degraded HA-Tb particles after 6 months in the bone tissue, suggesting that the differences in distribution form (regional or sporadic) and morphology (acicular or granular) of the degraded particles should be closely related to their microenvironment in the bone matrix.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Crystallization and composition differences of bone apatite and HA-Tb nanocrystals.
    • Fig. S2. Partial lattice models of HA, HA-Tb, and H2O-substituted HA.

    Download PDF

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article