Research ArticleECOLOGY

Mating avoidance in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected by Treponema pallidum

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Science Advances  04 Dec 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 12, eaaw9724
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw9724
  • Fig. 1 Genital ulcerations caused by Treponema pallidum.

    Clinical signs of infection in adult females (top) and males (bottom) of our study group. Photo credit: F. M. D. Paciência, German Primate Center.

  • Fig. 2 Percentage of male and female mating attempts according to their GHS.

    Each attempt could result in either copulation (green bar) or avoidance (brown bar). The percentage of observations is shown on the y axis. The attempts between individuals according to their GHS are shown on the x axis. NU × NU (non-ulcerated × non-ulcerated), UL × UL (ulcerated × ulcerated), NUM × ULF (non-ulcerated male × ulcerated female), ULM × NUF (ulcerated male × non-ulcerated female). Sample sizes are shown at the top of each bar.

  • Fig. 3 Olive baboon mating network.

    Nodes represent individual baboons and are colored according to each baboon’s GHS. Red nodes represent ulcerated individuals and gray non-ulcerated. Individuals who switched GHS are colored according to the status which had a higher number of copulations. Squares and circles represent males and females, respectively. Edges are weighted by the number of copulations among dyads and respective focal time. Edge colors correspond to the pairwise GHS of the nodes they connect, with red edges representing copulations where at least one of the individuals is ulcerated, while gray edges represent copulations between non-ulcerated individuals.

  • Table 1 Total attempt models.

    Weibull mixed-effects models evaluating whether the total number of mating attempts is influenced by the dyad’s GHS of the male and/or the female. Mating attempts initiated by males and females are shown in TA-1 and TA-2, respectively. Given are posterior means, SDs, 2.5 and 97.5% confidence intervals (CIs), and effective sample sizes (n). Rhat = 1 (model convergence) for all parameters. Models were run using four chains, each with 2000 iterations, a burn-in of 1000, and thinning set to 1.

    TA-1 model
    TermMeanSDCI lowerCI uppern (effective)
    Intercept q−3.400.24−3.89−2.942799
    Intercept β−2.110.20−2.53−1.752550
    Main effects:
    GHS females q0.040.28−0.520.594000
    GHS females β0.170.24−0.310.644000
    GHS males q0.370.28−0.180.922942
    GHS males β0.070.24−0.400.563025
    Random effects:
    Male ID q0.240.170.010.631803
    Male ID β0.140.110.010.402027
    Female ID q0.170.130.010.472424
    Female ID β0.110.090.000.334000
    TA-2 model
    TermMeanSDCI lowerCI uppern (effective)
    Intercept q−3.560.28−4.15−3.054000
    Intercept β−1.320.25−1.80−0.834000
    Main effects:
    GHS females q0.120.32−0.510.734000
    GHS females β0.500.34−0.181.174000
    GHS males q−0.210.35−0.920.444000
    GHS males β−0.270.35−1.000.374000
    Random effects:
    Male ID q0.430.270.021.021222
    Male ID β0.190.160.010.591982
    Female ID q0.240.180.010.652192
    Female ID β0.320.220.010.831385
  • Table 2 Successful attempt models.

    GLMMs evaluating whether the success of a mating attempt (i.e., likelihood of copulation) is influenced by the dyad’s GHS of the male and/or the female. Mating attempts initiated by males and females are shown in SA-1 and SA-2, respectively. Estimates, SEs, df, and 2.5 and 97.5% confidence intervals are shown for fixed effects. Significant variables (P < 0.05) are shown in bold. Intercept with reference category for non-ulcerated individuals.

    SA-1 model
    TermEstimateSECI lowerCI upperX2dfP
    Intercept2.3710.4771.6283.326***
    GHS females−1.1270.480−1.962−0.3257.18710.007
    GHS males−1.1670.481−2.151−0.2285.31510.021
    SA-2 model
    Intercept−1.5420.469−2.782−0.735***
    GHS females0.5770.647−0.7381.9830.79410.373
    GHS males−0.3960.657−1.7271.0550.34810.555

    *Not shown due to very limited interpretation

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/12/eaaw9724/DC1

      Fig. S1. Posterior probabilities with q and β estimation parameters.

      Fig. S2. Observed and predicted values using a discrete Weibull distribution.

      Table S1. Focal females and their respective mating partners.

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Fig. S1. Posterior probabilities with q and β estimation parameters.
      • Fig. S2. Observed and predicted values using a discrete Weibull distribution.
      • Table S1. Focal females and their respective mating partners.

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