Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Police violence and the health of black infants

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Science Advances  04 Dec 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 12, eaax7894
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax7894
  • Fig. 1 Effect of maternal exposure to police killings of unarmed blacks during pregnancy on the birth weight of black infants by trimester of exposure and distance to the incident.

    Symbols with lines represent point estimates with 95% confidence intervals from a DD model (left) and a DD model with sibling fixed-effects (right). The treatment indicator measures exposure to police killings by trimester of age. Additional covariates for exposure before and after pregnancy are omitted from the graphical presentation. Control variables include a linear county-specific trend, child’s gender, mother’s age and education, child parity, and fixed-effect terms for census tract, year-month, and mother ID for the sibling model. The number of cases is 246,018 for the DD model and 196,211 for the sibling model.

  • Fig. 2 Effect of maternal exposure to police killings of unarmed blacks before, during, and after pregnancy on the birth weight of black infants.

    Symbols with lines represent point estimates with 95% confidence intervals from a DD model (left) and a DD model with sibling fixed-effects (right). See note for Fig. 1 about additional control variables. The number of cases is 246,018 for the DD model and 196,211 for the sibling model.

  • Fig. 3 Effect of maternal exposure to police killings of unarmed and armed blacks, whites, and Hispanics before, during, and after pregnancy on the birth weight of black, white, and Hispanic infants.

    Symbols with lines represent point estimates with 95% confidence intervals from a DD model and a DD model with mother fixed-effects. Confidence intervals for estimates with high uncertainty are cut off to limit the scale of the y axis. The number of cases for the DD model is 246,018 for black infants, 2,392,103 for Hispanic infants, and 1,297,071 for white infants. The number of cases for the DD model with a sibling fixed-effect term is 196,211 for black infants, 2,196,409 for Hispanic infants, and 1,241,755 for white infants. The full regression table is reported in tables S4 and S5.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/12/eaax7894/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Table S1. Sample characteristics for black infants.

    Table S2. Sample characteristics for white infants.

    Table S3. Sample characteristics for Hispanic infants.

    Table S4. Results from 36 DD models.

    Table S5. Results from 36 DD models with sibling fixed-effect.

    Table S6. Effect of exposure to police killing of unarmed blacks on birth weight of black infants for distances below 1 km.

    Table S7. Sensitivity analysis for various definitions of trimester.

    Table S8. Sensitivity analysis for different definitions of exposure to police killings before and after birth.

    Table S9. Effect of exposure to police killing of unarmed blacks during pregnancy on residential mobility for black mothers.

    Table S10. 2SLS models for effect of police killings of unarmed blacks during pregnancy within 1 km on birth weight of black infants.

    Fig. S1. Police killings in California, 2005–2017.

    Fig. S2. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings of unarmed blacks before, during, and after pregnancy on the gestational age of black infants.

    Fig. S3. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings within 1.5 km on gestational age in weeks by race/ethnicity of infant and characteristic of police killing.

    Fig. S4. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings within 1.5 km on low birth weight in weeks by race/ethnicity of infant and characteristic of police killing.

    Fig. S5. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings within 1.5 km on premature birth by race/ethnicity of infant and characteristic of police killing.

    Fig. S6. DD model for the effect of police killing of unarmed blacks on the number of births to black mothers.

    Preregistered analysis plan

    Replication code

    References (4348)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDFset includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Table S1. Sample characteristics for black infants.
    • Table S2. Sample characteristics for white infants.
    • Table S3. Sample characteristics for Hispanic infants.
    • Table S4. Results from 36 DD models.
    • Table S5. Results from 36 DD models with sibling fixed-effect.
    • Table S6. Effect of exposure to police killing of unarmed blacks on birth weight of black infants for distances below 1 km.
    • Table S7. Sensitivity analysis for various definitions of trimester.
    • Table S8. Sensitivity analysis for different definitions of exposure to police killings before and after birth.
    • Table S9. Effect of exposure to police killing of unarmed blacks during pregnancy on residential mobility for black mothers.
    • Table S10. 2SLS models for effect of police killings of unarmed blacks during pregnancy within 1 km on birth weight of black infants.
    • Fig. S1. Police killings in California, 2005–2017.
    • Fig. S2. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings of unarmed blacks before, during, and after pregnancy on the gestational age of black infants.
    • Fig. S3. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings within 1.5 km on gestational age in weeks by race/ethnicity of infant and characteristic of police killing.
    • Fig. S4. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings within 1.5 km on low birth weight in weeks by race/ethnicity of infant and characteristic of police killing.
    • Fig. S5. Effect of maternal exposure to police killings within 1.5 km on premature birth by race/ethnicity of infant and characteristic of police killing.
    • Fig. S6. DD model for the effect of police killing of unarmed blacks on the number of births to black mothers.
    • Legend for preregistered analysis plan
    • References (4348)

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