Research ArticleENGINEERING

Printing of wirelessly rechargeable solid-state supercapacitors for soft, smart contact lenses with continuous operations

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Science Advances  06 Dec 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 12, eaay0764
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay0764
  • Fig. 1 DIW-based fabrication and characterization of the MIS-supercapacitor.

    (A) Schematic of the smart contact lens and DIW-based fabrication process of the monolithically integrated MIS-supercapacitor with an arc-shaped form factor. (B) Top-view photographs (upper images) and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image (lower images) of the electrodes and solid-state polymer electrolyte of the MIS-supercapacitor (black scale bars, 1 mm; white scale bar, 50 μm). (C) Viscoelastic properties (G′ and G″) of the electrode inks as a function of shear stress. The inset is a photograph of a letter (“UNIST”)–shaped electrode fabricated with the electrode ink (solid content, 18.0 wt %) on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Scale bar, 2 mm. (D) Photograph of in-plane electrodes with various dimensions (ranging from the micrometer to the millimeter scale) fabricated through the DIW process. The widths of electrodes varied from 100 μm to 1 mm at a fixed electrode gap of 100 μm (black scale bar, 2 mm; white scale bars, 500 μm). (E) Changes in the characteristic FT-IR peaks assigned to the thiol (─SH) groups (2575 cm−1) and acrylic C═C bonds (1610 to 1625 cm−1) in the thiol-ene polymer network skeleton before and after UV irradiation. (F) Ionic conductivity of the solid-state polymer electrolyte as a function of temperature (up to 150°C). The inset shows the mechanical flexibility of the solid-state polymer electrolyte. Scale bars, 1 cm. (G) CV curves of the MIS-supercapacitor as a function of scan rate (1, 2, and 5 mV/s). (H) GCD profiles at various current densities (0.1 to 1.0 mA/cm2). (I) Cycling performance of the MIS-supercapacitor (measured at a constant charge/discharge current density of 3.0 mA/cm2).

  • Fig. 2 Characteristics of the WPT system.

    (A) Schematic image of the WPT circuit composed of AgNF-AgNW–based antenna and rectifier. (B) Rectified properties of the fabricated circuit. (C) Distribution of rectified voltage according to the transmission distance (from 1 to 15 mm). (D) Relative change in rectified voltage as a function of stretching-releasing cycles (biaxially tensile strain of 30%). (E) Relative change in rectified voltage after immersion tests using lens liquid and saline solution. Each data point indicates the average for 50 samples, and error bars represent the SD.

  • Fig. 3 Wireless charging system.

    (A) Characteristics of wireless charging/discharging by current densities. (B) Wireless charging/discharging profiles according to the transmission distance (from 1 to 10 mm). (C) Cyclic performances of the wireless charging system. (D) Capacity retention by the cyclic numbers.

  • Fig. 4 Fully integrated soft, smart contact lens system.

    (A) Exploded illustration of the fully integrated soft, smart contact lens. (B) Photograph of the fully integrated soft, smart contact lens. Scale bar, 1 cm. (C) Circuit diagram of the fully integrated soft, smart contact lens. (D) Photograph of the soft, smart contact lens on an eye of a mannequin. Scale bar, 1 cm. (E) IR image of the soft, smart contact lens on an eye of a mannequin. Scale bar, 1 cm. (F) IR image and photograph (inset) during the discharging state on the eye of a live rabbit eye. Scale bars, 1 cm. (G) Photographs of a person wearing the operating soft, smart contact lens (left, charging state; right, discharging state with LED on-state). Scale bars, 2 cm. (H) Heat tests while a person is wearing the operating soft, smart contact lens. Scale bar, 2 cm. Photo credits: (B and D to F) Jihun Park, Yonsei University; (G and H) Joohee Kim, Yonsei University.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/12/eaay0764/DC1

    Fig. S1. The schematic layout of the printed supercapacitor.

    Fig. S2. Effect of PVP additive on electrode inks.

    Fig. S3. Effect of PVP additive on electrical conductivity of the resulting electrodes (without PVP additive versus with PVP additive).

    Fig. S4. Viscosity of the electrode inks (solid content, 1.9 and 18.0 wt %) as a function of shear rate.

    Fig. S5. Effect of solid content on electrode fabrication through DIW process.

    Fig. S6. LSV profiles of the solid-state polymer electrolyte (scan rate, 1.0 mV/s).

    Fig. S7. Weight retention and ionic conductivity of the solid-state polymer electrolyte at 150°C as a function of time.

    Fig. S8. Weight retention and ionic conductivity of the solid-state polymer electrolyte in a vacuum as a function of time.

    Fig. S9. Optical and electrical characteristics of AgNF-AgNW hybrid films.

    Fig. S10. Design and properties of the antenna for WPT.

    Fig. S11. Rectifier circuit based on Si PIN diodes and SiO2-based capacitor.

    Fig. S12. Biaxially stretching tests of AgNF-AgNW hybrid films.

    Fig. S13. Fabrication of a fully integrated soft, smart contact lens system.

    Fig. S14. SAR simulation results.

    Movie S1. Video clip showing the DIW-based dispensing procedure of the electrode ink on the smart contact lens substrate.

    Movie S2. Video clip showing the DIW-based dispensing procedure of the electrolyte ink on top of the previously fabricated electrodes.

    Movie S3. Video clip showing wireless the charging and discharging operation on the mannequin eye.

    Movie S4. Video clip showing the heat generation test in the wearing of the soft, smart contact lens on the human eye.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDFset includes:

    • Fig. S1. The schematic layout of the printed supercapacitor.
    • Fig. S2. Effect of PVP additive on electrode inks.
    • Fig. S3. Effect of PVP additive on electrical conductivity of the resulting electrodes (without PVP additive versus with PVP additive).
    • Fig. S4. Viscosity of the electrode inks (solid content, 1.9 and 18.0 wt %) as a function of shear rate.
    • Fig. S5. Effect of solid content on electrode fabrication through DIW process.
    • Fig. S6. LSV profiles of the solid-state polymer electrolyte (scan rate, 1.0 mV/s).
    • Fig. S7. Weight retention and ionic conductivity of the solid-state polymer electrolyte at 150°C as a function of time.
    • Fig. S8. Weight retention and ionic conductivity of the solid-state polymer electrolyte in a vacuum as a function of time.
    • Fig. S9. Optical and electrical characteristics of AgNF-AgNW hybrid films.
    • Fig. S10. Design and properties of the antenna for WPT.
    • Fig. S11. Rectifier circuit based on Si PIN diodes and SiO2-based capacitor.
    • Fig. S12. Biaxially stretching tests of AgNF-AgNW hybrid films.
    • Fig. S13. Fabrication of a fully integrated soft, smart contact lens system.
    • Fig. S14. SAR simulation results.
    • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.avi format). Video clip showing the DIW-based dispensing procedure of the electrode ink on the smart contact lens substrate.
    • Movie S2 (.avi format). Video clip showing the DIW-based dispensing procedure of the electrolyte ink on top of the previously fabricated electrodes.
    • Movie S3 (.avi format). Video clip showing wireless the charging and discharging operation on the mannequin eye.
    • Movie S4 (.avi format). Video clip showing the heat generation test in the wearing of the soft, smart contact lens on the human eye.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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