Research ArticleECOLOGY

Honeybees forage more successfully without the “dance language” in challenging environments

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Science Advances  13 Feb 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 2, eaat0450
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0450
  • Fig. 1 Weight data over the course of the experiment.

    (A) Cumulative weight change over the 18-day experimental period (n = 12 colonies). (B) Foraging activity measured as colony weight change between 4 a.m. and 12 p.m. Each point is the mean difference for a treatment on a day. Solid line, disoriented colonies; dashed line, oriented colonies (shaded area, SE).

  • Fig. 2 Individual foraging success.

    (A) Mean volume of nectar in returning foragers in the two treatments ± SE (microliter). (B) Geometric mean sugar concentration of nectar in returning foragers ± CI (%). In both plots, raw data are represented by gray points.

  • Fig. 3 Following behavior change in E1 and E2 for oriented colonies (blue) and disoriented colonies (red).

    (A) Average number of dance followers per dance in the first 2 days (start) and in the last 2 days (end) in E1 (mean ± SE). (B) Average number of waggle runs followed by dance followers at the start and end in E1 (mean ± SE). (C) Number of runs followed by a dance follower in E2 (mean ± SE). Lines were drawn using linear model function.

  • Fig. 4 Total energy intake in colonies that rely on either dance information or scouting when foraging in different environmental conditions (mean ± CI).

    (A to H) In each of these simulations, patch molarity is 0.5 and patch yield is 25 μl. We manipulated the patch density (PD) and patch molarity variance. PA, patch age; PV, patch variation.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/2/eaat0450/DC1

    Methods

    Fig. S1. Hive in horizontal orientation and hive in vertical orientation, both with glass windows.

    Fig. S2. Correlation of scale foraging effort against morning manual foraging counts.

    Fig. S3. Test for effect of light on the first frame of vertical colonies.

    Fig. S4. Daily weight change of hives that were switched every 3 days.

    Fig. S5. Foraging activity in hives that were switched every 3 days.

    Fig. S6. Colony pollen collection in 18-day treatments.

    Fig. S7. Foraging journey time of foragers in the 18-day treatments (geometric mean ± CI).

    Table S1. Colony treatment order—numbers represent colony ID.

    Table S2. Overview of all model parameters and the values used in our simulations for the two conditions (colonies with dancing or without dancing).

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Methods
    • Fig. S1. Hive in horizontal orientation and hive in vertical orientation, both with glass windows.
    • Fig. S2. Correlation of scale foraging effort against morning manual foraging counts.
    • Fig. S3. Test for effect of light on the first frame of vertical colonies.
    • Fig. S4. Daily weight change of hives that were switched every 3 days.
    • Fig. S5. Foraging activity in hives that were switched every 3 days.
    • Fig. S6. Colony pollen collection in 18-day treatments.
    • Fig. S7. Foraging journey time of foragers in the 18-day treatments (geometric mean ± CI).
    • Table S1. Colony treatment order—numbers represent colony ID.
    • Table S2. Overview of all model parameters and the values used in our simulations for the two conditions (colonies with dancing or without dancing).

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