Research ArticleSCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY

STEM faculty who believe ability is fixed have larger racial achievement gaps and inspire less student motivation in their classes

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Science Advances  15 Feb 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 2, eaau4734
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau4734
  • Fig. 1 Faculty mindset beliefs predict the racial achievement gap in STEM courses.

    Predicted values are computed from the interaction between faculty mindset beliefs (fixed = −1 SD, growth = +1 SD) and students’ URM (Black, Hispanic, Native American) status. Error bars represent ±1 SE.

  • Fig. 2 Faculty mindset beliefs predict students’ experiences in STEM courses.

    Predicted values are computed from the mean of faculty mindset (fixed = −1 SD, growth = +1 SD). Error bars represent ±1 SE. ns, not significant. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01.

  • Table 1 Faculty characteristics predicting faculty mindset beliefs.

    Higher scores on faculty mindset beliefs reflect a more growth mindset. Gender was coded as follows: female = 1, male = 0. Race/ethnicity was coded as follows: URM (Black, Hispanic, Native American) = 1, non-URM (White, Asian) = 0. Tenure status was coded as follows: tenured = 1, nontenured = 0. Biology was used as the reference group for STEM discipline dummy codes.

    Bt (132)P
    Faculty gender0.140.460.648
    Faculty race/
    ethnicity
    0.030.060.956
    Faculty teaching
    experience
    0.250.950.343
    Faculty tenure
    status
    −0.16−0.540.588
    Faculty age−0.16−0.640.527
    Astronomy−0.26−0.330.739
    Biochemistry−0.90−1.370.175
    Biotechnology0.180.160.871
    Chemistry−0.22−0.440.659
    Cognitive
    Science
    −0.53−0.580.565
    Computer
    Science
    −0.12−0.230.816
    Economics−0.64−1.120.265
    Geology0.390.730.468
    Informatics0.310.690.490
    Math−0.62−1.480.140
    Physics−0.53−0.860.391
    Statistics−0.32−0.400.689

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/2/eaau4734/DC1

    Supplemental Analyses

    Table S1. Fixed effects estimates predicting students’ grades in STEM courses.

    Table S2. Testing the role of other faculty characteristics.

    Table S3. Fixed effects estimates predicting course evaluations.

    Table S4. Correlations among the variables at level 1 (student).

    Table S5. Correlations among the variables at level 2 (course).

    Table S6. Correlations among the variables at level 3 (faculty).

    Table S7. Discipline-level mindset beliefs.

    Fig. S1. Mediation models for URM and non-URM students.

    References (3739)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplemental Analyses
    • Table S1. Fixed effects estimates predicting students’ grades in STEM courses.
    • Table S2. Testing the role of other faculty characteristics.
    • Table S3. Fixed effects estimates predicting course evaluations.
    • Table S4. Correlations among the variables at level 1 (student).
    • Table S5. Correlations among the variables at level 2 (course).
    • Table S6. Correlations among the variables at level 3 (faculty).
    • Table S7. Discipline-level mindset beliefs.
    • Fig. S1. Mediation models for URM and non-URM students.
    • References (3739)

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