Research ArticleIMMUNOLOGY

NDR2 promotes the antiviral immune response via facilitating TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation in macrophages

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Science Advances  06 Feb 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 2, eaav0163
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav0163


Retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-I), a pivotal cytosolic sensor, recognizes viral RNAs to initiate antiviral innate immunity. However, posttranslational regulation of RIG-I signaling is not well understood. We report here that nuclear Dbf2-related kinase 2 (NDR2) functions as a crucial positive regulator of the RIG-I–mediated antiviral immune response. Overexpression of NDR2 or its kinase-inactive mutants potentiates RNA virus–induced production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines and dampens viral replication. NDR2 conditional knockout mice (Lysm+NDR2f/f) show an impaired antiviral immune response. Mechanistically, NDR2 directly associates with RIG-I and TRIM25, thus facilitating the RIG-I/TRIM25 complex and enhancing the TRIM25-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I, which is required for the RIG-I–mediated antiviral immune response. Furthermore, NDR2 expression is notably down-regulated in peripheral blood from respiratory syncytial virus–infected patients and in virus-infected macrophages. Collectively, these findings provide insights into the function of NDR2 in antiviral immunity and its related clinical significance.

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