Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Routine allomaternal nursing in a free-ranging Old World monkey

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Science Advances  20 Feb 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 2, eaav0499
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav0499
  • Fig. 1 Factors affecting the extent of allomaternal nursing (allonursing).

    (A) Increased allomaternal nursing within mother-daughter dyads. (B) Positive relationship between mother’s and allonurser’s pattern of reciprocal allomaternal nursing. (C) No difference in allomaternal nursing proportions between females with an unweaned infant (approximately 1 year of age) and females with a neonate (<6 months of age). (D) No difference in allomaternal nursing proportions between primiparous and multiparous mothers (**P < 0.01; ns, no significance, P > 0.05).

  • Table 1 Model-averaged coefficients of generalized linear mixed models for factors potentially affecting the likelihood of a female acting as an allonurser and the result of the best model.
    Fixed effectEstimate coefficientSEZ valuePRelative variable importance
    (A) Model averaging
    Intercept3.5151.2422.8660.0016
    Relatedness1.5790.6252.4910.01271.00
    Reciprocity6.9631.6504.1750.000021.00
    Age of offspring−1.7661.1421.5350.12460.90
    Reproductive history2.1711.31571.6370.10160.86
    (B) Best model
    Intercept−3.71921.1413−3.2590.0011
    Relatedness1.67250.61642.7180.0065
    Reciprocity7.22611.64074.4040.0001
    Age of offspring−2.09130.9650−2.1670.0302
    Reproductive history2.49821.15392.1650.0304
  • Table 2 Birth seasonality and number of infants and lactating females observed during the study period.
    YearBirth
    seasonality
    Number of
    infants
    Number of
    lactating
    females
    20121 April to 21
    May
    7*18
    201320 March to 1
    June
    1216
    201425 March to 27
    May
    717
    20151 March to 8
    May
    17**20
    201618 March to 26
    April
    410

    *Including one stillborn.

    **Including one born on 25 August.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/2/eaav0499/DC1

      Table S1. The infant’s mother, (potential) allonurser, proportion of allomaternal nursing (based on time spent nursing), and kin relationship between the allonurser and the infant’s mother in the social units of a free-ranging group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (R. roxellana).

      Table S2. AICc-ranked candidate model set showing relative importance of the following parameters on whether a female acted as allonurser.

      Table S3. Social and ecological traits of primate species for which regular allomaternal nursing has been reported.

      Table S4. Adult females’ reproductive history in focal group that is composed of four to six OMUs.

      References (4549)

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Table S1. The infant’s mother, (potential) allonurser, proportion of allomaternal nursing (based on time spent nursing), and kin relationship between the allonurser and the infant’s mother in the social units of a free-ranging group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (R. roxellana).
      • Table S2. AICc-ranked candidate model set showing relative importance of the following parameters on whether a female acted as allonurser.
      • Table S3. Social and ecological traits of primate species for which regular allomaternal nursing has been reported.
      • Table S4. Adult females’ reproductive history in focal group that is composed of four to six OMUs.
      • References (4549)

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