Research ArticleECOLOGY

Home ground advantage: Local Atlantic salmon have higher reproductive fitness than dispersers in the wild

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Science Advances  27 Feb 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 2, eaav1112
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1112
  • Fig. 1 Locations sampled for baseline populations (indicated with circles) in the Teno River basin.

    The orange square represents the lower Utsjoki study site, and orange circles represent locations in the Teno mainstem that were considered as “local.” Black circles represent locations where spawning adults were assigned as dispersers with the number of assigned individuals noted in parentheses. Open circles represent baseline populations to where none of the breeding adults were assigned. Lower right inlay shows areas in green where adults and juveniles were sampled in the lower Utsjoki sampling location. AJ, Akujoki; AK, Alaköngäs; AN, Anárjohka; BJ, Báišjohka; BV, Bavttájohka; CS, Cášcemjohka; GD, Galddasjoki; GJ, Garnjarga; GM, Geáimmejohka; GS, Goššjohka; IJ, Iskurasjoki; IL, lower Iešjohka; IU, upper Iešjohka; IN, Inari; KE, Kevojoki; KJ, Kuoppilasjoki; KO, Kortsami; KR, Karigasjoki; KS, Kárášjohka; KT, Kietsimäjoki; LJ, Levajohka; LK, Lakšjohka; LV, Luovttejohka; MK, Máskejohka; NJ, Nilijoki; OU, Outakoski; PI, Piltamo; SI, Sirma; TB, Tana Bru; TZ, Tsarsjoki; UU, upper Utsjoki; VJ, Vetsijoki; VL, Váljohka; VU, Vuomajoki; YK, Yläköngäs; YP, Ylä-Pulmankijoki.

  • Fig. 2 The relationship of origin (local or disperser) and sea age at maturity (measured in sea winters, SW) with reproductive success (no. of offspring).

    Large circles with error bars indicate the means ± SE, and small circles show individual data points. For clarity, points are jittered on the x axis. No very young (1 SW) local females and only one old (3 to 4 SW) dispersing male were recorded.

  • Table 1 Summaries of models for lower Utsjoki females and males testing the effects of sea age at maturity (sea age), annual adult sample size (no. of adults), annual offspring sample size (no. of offspring), and adult origin (local or disperser) on reproductive success.

    The “zero inflation” term accounts for the large number of adults with zero reproductive success in our sample.

    TermParameter
    estimate
    SEz ValueP
    Females
    Intercept−6.580.31−20.94<0.0001
    Sea age0.610.0513.09<0.0001
    No. of adults0.020.021.290.199
    No. of offspring−0.020.01−1.630.103
    Origin1.380.226.18<0.0001
    Zero inflation−8.830.49−18.17<0.0001
    Males
    Intercept−6.750.20−33.88<0.0001
    Sea age0.830.0332.40<0.0001
    No. of adults−0.020.00−7.56<0.0001
    No. of offspring0.060.024.22<0.0001
    Origin0.540.143.75<0.0001
    Zero inflation−7.280.14−53.38<0.0001

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/2/eaav1112/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Water temperatures at the lower Utsjoki sampling location and the Teno River mainstem (Tenojoki) 1.5 km upstream in all sampling years.

    Fig. S2. Akujoki sampling location.

    Fig. S3. The relationship of origin (local or disperser) and sea age at maturity (in SW) with reproductive success (no. of offspring) in the Akujoki sampling location.

    Fig. S4. Interpolation of sea age at maturity from weight for sampled female (F) and male (M) adult salmon for which scales could not be sampled for aging.

    Table S1. Adult sample sizes in sampling location and cohort.

    Table S2. Baseline population adult assignments for lower Utsjoki and Akujoki sampling locations.

    Table S3. Mean sea age at maturity (in SW), weight in kilograms (weight), condition (condition), mating success (no. of mates), and reproductive success (no. of offspring) of local and dispersing adults of each sex in the lower Utsjoki and Akujoki locations.

    Table S4. Parentage assignments using the MasterBayes pedigree framework.

    Table S5. Summaries of Poisson GLMs of reproductive success excluding adults that did not have offspring assigned in our sample.

    Table S6. Model summaries showing the effect of sea age at maturity as a two-level factor (sea age class, 1 or 2 SW) and origin (local or disperser) on reproductive success of males and females sampled in Akujoki.

    Reference (51)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Water temperatures at the lower Utsjoki sampling location and the Teno River mainstem (Tenojoki) 1.5 km upstream in all sampling years.
    • Fig. S2. Akujoki sampling location.
    • Fig. S3. The relationship of origin (local or disperser) and sea age at maturity (in SW) with reproductive success (no. of offspring) in the Akujoki sampling location.
    • Fig. S4. Interpolation of sea age at maturity from weight for sampled female (F) and male (M) adult salmon for which scales could not be sampled for aging.
    • Table S1. Adult sample sizes in sampling location and cohort.
    • Table S2. Baseline population adult assignments for lower Utsjoki and Akujoki sampling locations.
    • Table S3. Mean sea age at maturity (in SW), weight in kilograms (weight), condition (condition), mating success (no. of mates), and reproductive success (no. of offspring) of local and dispersing adults of each sex in the lower Utsjoki and Akujoki locations.
    • Table S4. Parentage assignments using the MasterBayes pedigree framework.
    • Table S5. Summaries of Poisson GLMs of reproductive success excluding adults that did not have offspring assigned in our sample.
    • Table S6. Model summaries showing the effect of sea age at maturity as a two-level factor (sea age class, 1 or 2 SW) and origin (local or disperser) on reproductive success of males and females sampled in Akujoki.
    • Reference (51)

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