Research ArticleECOLOGY

Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests

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Science Advances  06 Mar 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 3, eaau3114
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau3114
  • Fig. 1 Tree species richness and recovery of Neotropical secondary forests.

    (A) Absolute recovery of species richness (number of species per 25 stems). (B) Relative recovery of species richness [% old-growth (OG)] after 20 years. The 56 study sites (45 sites for relative recovery) are indicated; symbol size scales with predicted recovery at 20 years after abandonment. Green shading indicates forest cover in the year 2000 (39). Dry forests have an annual rainfall of <1500 mm year−1, moist forests have an annual rainfall of 1500 to 2499 mm year−1, and wet forests have an annual rainfall of ≥2500 mm year−1. (C) Forest recovery in dry tropical forests: secondary forest and old-growth forest plot in a dry forest site in the Atlantic forest in Brazil. (D) Forest recovery in wet tropical forests: secondary forest and old-growth forest plot in the wet forest site Sarapiquí in Costa Rica. Stand age (in years) of the secondary forests is indicated. (E) Forest legacies in an agricultural field in Márques de Comillas, Mexico. Photo credit: M.M.E.-S., D.M.A.R., and M.M.-R.

  • Fig. 2 Absolute recovery of species richness and relative recovery of species richness and composition in relation to stand age for Neotropical secondary forests.

    Each line indicates predicted recovery per site based on the site-specific intercept and slope from the mixed-effects models. Lines span the age range of secondary forest per site; symbols indicate the individual plots. Dry forests (annual rainfall of <1500 mm year−1) are indicated in green, moist forests (1500 to 2499 mm year−1) are indicated in light blue, and wet forests (≥2500 mm year−1) are indicated in dark blue. The gray line indicates the average predicted recovery rate for a site that is recovering after shifting cultivation, with all other predictors kept constant at the mean. (A) Rarefied species richness (per 25 stems; n = 56 sites). (B) Relative recovery of rarefied species richness [as a percentage of old-growth (% OG) forest; n = 45 sites]. The black dashed line indicates 100% recovery to the species richness of old-growth forest. (C) Relative recovery of species richness (n = 45 sites) based on the Chao-Jaccard index. The black dashed line indicates 100% recovery to the mean similarity in species composition (0.47 ± 0.040 SE) between old-growth plots in the same site averaged across the 41 sites with at least two old-growth plots to account for within-site variation in composition across old-growth plots.

  • Fig. 3 Effects of stand age, the size of the local old-growth forest species pool, CWA, CEC, forest cover, previous land-use type, and plot size on biodiversity recovery in Neotropical secondary forests.

    The size of the local old-growth forest species pool was estimated based on the Chao 1 estimator. Standardized coefficients with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals are indicated. Negative coefficients indicate a negative relation, and positive coefficients indicate a positive relation. Effect sizes of land-use type comparisons are not directly comparable with those of the other predictors. SC, shifting cultivation; SC and PA, some plots shifting cultivation and some plots pasture; PA, pasture. Filled symbols indicate significant responses, and open symbols indicate nonsignificant responses. (A) Absolute recovery of rarefied species richness (number of species per 25 stems; n = 56 sites). Effects of the local species pool on absolute recovery of rarefied richness were not included, as old-growth plots were not available for all sites. (B) Relative recovery of rarefied richness [% old-growth (OG); n = 45 sites]. (C) Relative recovery of species composition [% OG; based on the Chao-Jaccard index (31)], accounting for variation in composition among old-growth plots (n = 45 sites).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/3/eaau3114/DC1

    Fig. S1. Relative recovery of species composition [% old-growth (OG)] for Neotropical secondary forests after 20 years.

    Fig. S2. Absolute recovery of species richness, and relative recovery of species richness and species composition, in relation to CWA, CEC, and forest cover in the landscape matrix for Neotropical secondary forests.

    Fig. S3. Effects of CWA and soil fertility (CEC) on the local old-growth species pool (based on the Chao 1 estimator) for 45 Neotropical secondary forest sites.

    Table S1. Characteristics of the included Neotropical secondary forest sites.

    Table S2. Characteristics of the dataset for 56 Neotropical secondary forest sites.

    Table S3. Correlations between predictors for 56 Neotropical secondary forest sites.

    Table S4. Correlations between predictors for 45 Neotropical secondary forest sites for which data from old-growth plots were included.

    References (4065)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Relative recovery of species composition % old-growth (OG) for Neotropical secondary forests after 20 years.
    • Fig. S2. Absolute recovery of species richness, and relative recovery of species richness and species composition, in relation to CWA, CEC, and forest cover in the landscape matrix for Neotropical secondary forests.
    • Fig. S3. Effects of CWA and soil fertility (CEC) on the local old-growth species pool (based on the Chao 1 estimator) for 45 Neotropical secondary forest sites.
    • Table S1. Characteristics of the included Neotropical secondary forest sites.
    • Table S2. Characteristics of the dataset for 56 Neotropical secondary forest sites.
    • Table S3. Correlations between predictors for 56 Neotropical secondary forest sites.
    • Table S4. Correlations between predictors for 45 Neotropical secondary forest sites for which data from old-growth plots were included.
    • References (4065)

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