Research ArticlePSYCHOLOGY

Motivating the adoption of new community-minded behaviors: An empirical test in Nigeria

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Science Advances  13 Mar 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 3, eaau5175
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau5175
  • Fig. 1 Social norms campaign film scene and results.

    (A and B) Scenes from the treatment version of the Nollywood film, depicting characters texting in corruption reports. (Photo credit: Graeme Blair, University of California, Los Angeles; Rebecca Littman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Princeton University). (C and D) Time series plotting the average daily number of text messages that engaged with the campaign and that reported a concrete corruption event, respectively, from communities where we delivered the treatment versus placebo version of the film. Locally estimated scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) lines are overlaid.

  • Fig. 2 Nudge campaign text and results.

    (A) Mass text nudge sent to phones. (Photo credit: Graeme Blair, University of California, Los Angeles; Rebecca Littman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Princeton University). (B and C) Time series plotting the average daily number of text messages that engaged with the campaign and that reported a concrete corruption event, respectively, from communities that received the text on a randomly assigned day following the film distribution. LOESS lines are overlaid.

  • Fig. 3 Total number of text messages received per day from January 2014 to August 2014.

    The number of messages received per day is reported for Any Engagement messages that mentioned corruption or the two media campaigns, including Corruption Report messages that made explicit mention of a corrupt act, person, or institution.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/3/eaau5175/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Illustrative map of 106 sampled communities and mobile phone towers.

    Fig. S2. Illustrative map of sampled communities in an urban area, Port Harcourt.

    Fig. S3. Ex ante predictions for rates of corruption reporting per treatment condition.

    Fig. S4. Difference in perceptions of social norms regarding corruption and corruption reporting.

    Fig. S5. Difference in perceptions of social norms regarding corruption and corruption reporting, for police and bureaucrat corruption and government corruption.

    Table S1. Summary of text messages received in response to the two study campaigns.

    Table S2. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text.

    Table S3. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film.

    Table S4. Summary statistics for items in social norms outcome indices.

    Table S5. Full text of survey questions and response scales used in the design and analysis.

    Table S6. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, averaged over the period before the mass text and the period after.

    Table S7. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, dropping communities with no film watchers.

    Table S8. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, dropping communities that received the mass text early.

    Table S9. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, using assigned mass text send date.

    Table S10. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, controlling for week of film distribution.

    Table S11. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text interaction, with distribution duration control.

    Table S12. Messages related to corruption that are not detailed corruption reports sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text.

    Table S13. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, controlling for individual-level covariates.

    Table S14. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, controlling for week of film distribution start.

    Table S15. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, controlling for the duration of film distribution.

    Table S16. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, with enumerator fixed effects.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Illustrative map of 106 sampled communities and mobile phone towers.
    • Fig. S2. Illustrative map of sampled communities in an urban area, Port Harcourt.
    • Fig. S3. Ex ante predictions for rates of corruption reporting per treatment condition.
    • Fig. S4. Difference in perceptions of social norms regarding corruption and corruption reporting.
    • Fig. S5. Difference in perceptions of social norms regarding corruption and corruption reporting, for police and bureaucrat corruption and government corruption.
    • Table S1. Summary of text messages received in response to the two study campaigns.
    • Table S2. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text.
    • Table S3. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film.
    • Table S4. Summary statistics for items in social norms outcome indices.
    • Table S5. Full text of survey questions and response scales used in the design and analysis.
    • Table S6. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, averaged over the period before the mass text and the period after.
    • Table S7. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, dropping communities with no film watchers.
    • Table S8. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, dropping communities that received the mass text early.
    • Table S9. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, using assigned mass text send date.
    • Table S10. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text, controlling for week of film distribution.
    • Table S11. Corruption messages sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text interaction, with distribution duration control.
    • Table S12. Messages related to corruption that are not detailed corruption reports sent as a result of the treatment film and mass text.
    • Table S13. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, controlling for individual-level covariates.
    • Table S14. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, controlling for week of film distribution start.
    • Table S15. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, controlling for the duration of film distribution.
    • Table S16. Changes in social norms outcomes as a result of the treatment film, with enumerator fixed effects.

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