Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Vapor-printed polymer electrodes for long-term, on-demand health monitoring

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Science Advances  15 Mar 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 3, eaaw0463
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw0463

Abstract

We vapor print conformal conjugated polymer electrodes directly onto living plants and use these electrodes to probe the health of actively growing specimens using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Vapor-printed polymer electrodes, unlike their adhesive thin-film counterparts, do not delaminate from microtextured living surfaces as the organism matures and do not observably attenuate the natural growth pattern and self-sustenance of the plants investigated here. On-demand, noninvasive bioimpedance spectroscopy performed with long-lasting vapor-printed polymer electrodes can reliably detect deep tissue damage caused by dehydration and ultraviolet A exposure throughout the life cycle of a plant.

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